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The role of field-induced electrochemical migration oxygen ions in switching behaviour of LSMO films is established through I-V measurements under various top electrode device configurations. We report observation of bubbling, mechanical damage and delamination of top electrode in LSMO-based large area RRAM devices. Polarity dependence of this phenomenon, as observed in-situ during electrical measurements, reveals O-evolution to be the likely cause for such electrode damage. The effect of this phenomenon on switching behaviour of devices with reactive as well as inert top electrodes is presented. To mitigate the electrode integrity issue, we explore the use of conducting oxide electrodes on the active LSMO film.
This work describes the study of synthesis and physical characterization of nanostructured manganite oxides. The La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) nanotubes and fibers have been prepared by electrospinning and pore wetting technique. The samples were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetization as a function of temperature (M(T)). XRD results of LSM fibers and nanotubes revealed that both samples crystallize in a rhombohedra-distorted perovskite structure. SEM pictures of these samples revealed ultrafine grains assembled in fibers and nanotubes samples. Analysis of these images revealed samples with external diameter ranging from 300 to 1.4 mm, and 7 μm to hundreds of mm in length. The M(T) measurements of samples La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 revealed a paramagnetic/ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. Such transition occurs at temperatures of Tc ≈ 337 K and Tc ≈ 360 K for the nanotubes and fibers, respectively. Furthermore, this variation of the Tc values is also reported in literature for other manganite nanostructures. Such variation can be related to the microstructural characteristics observed for both LSM samples produced in this work. In general, it is believed that both methodologies allowed the production of nanostructures LSM. Also, these results suggest that the dimensionality of the samples seems to interfere in the physical properties of LSM manganite.
(1-x)(Bi0.8Gd0.2)FeO3-xPbTiO3 (BGF-PT) solid solutions ceramics of x=0.55,0.50,0.4975, 0.49 and 0.45 were prepared by the mixed oxide method. Gd3+ of 20 at% was introduced into the Bi3+ site to improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BFPT without causing the significant reduction of Curie temperature (Tc). X-ray diffraction analysis shows a transformation from the tetragonal (T) to rhombohedral (R) phase with the increase of BGF content. The morphotropic phase boundary was determined by measuring the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BGF-PT within a wide composition range. BGF-PT for x=0.4975 shows the coexistence of T and R phases with the dielectric constant and loss of about 895 and 0.031 respectively at the frequency of 102 Hz.
We examined the influence of momentary annealing on the nanoscale surface morphology of NiO(111) epitaxial thin films deposited on atomically stepped sapphire (0001) substrates at room temperature in O2 at 1.3 × 10−3 and 1.3 × 10−6 Pa using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The NiO films have atomically flat surfaces (RMS roughness: approximately 0.1–0.2 nm) reflecting the step-and-terrace structures of the substrates, regardless of the O2 deposition pressure. After rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the NiO(111) epitaxial film deposited at 1.3 × 10−3 Pa O2, a periodic straight nanogroove array related to the atomic steps of the substrate was formed on the film surface for 60 s. In contrast, the fabrication of a transient state in the nanogroove array formation was achieved with RTA of less than 1 s. However, when the O2 atmosphere during PLD was 1.3 × 10−6 Pa, random crystal growth was observed and resulted in a disordered rough surface nanostructure after RTA.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
We report on the continuous increase of the breakdown electric field, also known as disruptive strength, of an ultra thin layer based on Al2O3 prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) by reducing its thickness from 90 nm down to 3 nm. By calculating the disruptive strength for lower thicknesses, we demonstrate that our observations are in agreement with recent reports. Additionally, the disruptive strength increases to lower thicknesses as the pinhole density rises. The pinholes, referred to as morphological defects, are detected by Cu electroplating and result in a lower permittivity of the dielectric. As a conclusion, the dielectric breakdown is predominantly attributed to intrinsic, meaning stoichiometric defects. Thus, morphological defects, consisting of pinholes generated by agglomerative growth of the dielectric, surprisingly do not have a negative influence on the dielectric breakdown of ALD-processed ultra thin dielectric layers.
Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles provide a pathway towards nanocomposites, due to the ability to fabricate particle-matrix thin films in the submicron range. In this work flexible particulate 0-3 type thin-films, composed of magnetic CoFe2O4 particles (8-18 nm) and ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VDF-HFP)) polymer, have been fabricated via multiple spin-coating. The thickness of the thin-films was controlled in the range of 500 nm to 1.2 μm, with magnetic particles dispersively embedded in the polymer matrix. Structural information was analyzed by TEM, XRD, HRTEM and SEM. The dielectric and magnetic properties of the cobalt ferrite/copolymer thin films are systematically investigated. The nanocomposite thin films exhibit composition-dependent effective permittivity and loss tangent, as well as temperature and composition-dependent specific saturation magnetization (Ms). The coercivity (Hc) was not affected by the composite’s composition. These films have great potential in smart magnetic devices and biomagnetic applications.
Molecular conduction channels between two ferromagnetic electrodes can produce strong exchange coupling and dramatic effect on the spin transport, thus enabling the realization of novel logic and memory devices. To realize such device, we produced Multilayer Edge Molecular Spintronics Devices (MEMSDs) by bridging the organometallic molecular clusters (OMCs) across a ∼2 nm thick insulator of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), along its exposed side edges. These MEMSDs exhibited unprecedented increase in exchange coupling between ferromagnetic films and dramatic changes in the spin transport. This paper focuses on the dramatic current suppression phenomenon exhibited by MEMSDs at room temperature. In the event of current suppression, the effective MEMESDs’ current reduced by as much as six orders in magnitude as compared to the leakage current level of a MTJ test bed. Current suppression phenomenon was found to be associated with the equally dramatic changes in the MTJ test beds due to OMCs. Role of OMC in changing MTJ test bed properties was determined by the three different types of magnetic characterizations: SQUID Magnetometer, Ferromagnetic Resonance, and Magnetic Force Microscopy. Observation of current suppression by independent research groups and supporting studies on similar systems will be crucially important to unequivocally establish the utility of MEMSD approach.
A low thermal budget process for back-end compatible PCMO based RRAM cell is essential for 3D stacked memory. In this paper, we investigate two strategies to engineer low thermal budget processing for bipolar switching - (i) deposition engineering i.e. based on deposition temperature and oxygen partial pressure, (ii) post deposition anneal i.e. based on inert anneal of room temperature deposited PCMO film.. We demonstrate that both deposition and anneal shows a transition temperature above which bipolar switching is realized. Oxygen partial pressure is a key deposition process parameter. As oxygen partial pressure is reduced memory window increases, however beyond an optimal O2 partial pressure, unipolar switching is observed. Inert anneal is more effective in thermal budget reduction as N2/550°C/2min anneal has same memory performance as 650°C/2hour deposition process.
The properties of superconductors at the extreme limits of dimensionality are of fundamental interest. The interface of LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 hosts a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor below Tc≈200 mK. Here we report superconductivity in nanowire-shaped structures created at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using conductive atomic force microscope lithography. Nanowire cross-sections are small compared to the superconducting coherence length in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (w <<ξSC∼100 nm), placing them in the quasi-1D regime. The ability to “write” fully superconducting nanostructures on an insulating LaAlO3/SrTiO3 “canvas” opens possibilities for the development of new families of superconducting nanoelectronics. Four-terminal transport measurements suggest that in some devices both the normal and superconducting states are confined to a single quantum channel.
This research shows the influence of the synthesis route in the structural and morphological characteristics as well as in the luminescent properties of doped with europium and pure SrTiO3 (STO) powders prepared by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis, MWH, and by the polymeric precursor method, PPM. The XRD at room temperature of the STO powders nominally pure obtained by PPM at 700°C for 3 hours, as well as by the MWH at 190°C by 30 minutes present all the reflection peaks for the cubic perovskite structure (JCPDS-ICDD 35-734). The morphology varies according to the synthesis route. The particles of pure STO obtained by PPM presents morphology in the form of plates and the morphology of the particles synthesized by MWH is spherical with approximately 150 nm. The photoluminescent analysis shows for pure STO wide bands associated with the transition of charge transfer from the titanates group (TiO3)2- that are centered on 450 nm. In both preparation methods the emission bands obtained in the composites spectra were found to be asymmetric and low intense. However, in the case of the STO prepared by the PPM a bigger FWHM of the band can be observed. The excitation of the samples was done using a laser (Coherent Innova) with wavelength of 350 nm.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The current versus voltage (I-V) measurements of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices using the above multilayered thin film as the dielectric have been taken in the temperature range of 310 to 410K. The electrical conduction mechanisms contributing to the leakage current at different field regions have been studied in this work. Various models are used to know the different leakage mechanisms contributing to the conduction current in these devices. It is observed that Poole-Frenkel mechanism is the dominant conduction process in the high field region with a deep trap level energy (φt) of 1.31 eV whereas space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism and Ohmic conduction process are contributing to the leakage current in the medium and low field regions respectively. The estimated shallow trap level (Et) for SCLC mechanism is 0.26 eV whereas the activation energy (Ea) for the electrons in the Ohmic conduction process is about 0.07 eV. An energy band diagram is given to explain the various leakage mechanisms in different field regions for these heterostructured thin films.
Achieving low resistance ohmic contacts for heavily doped devices is critical towards ensuring that contact resistance does not dominate the device performance. Here, we report contact resistance studies done on Pt/LSMO, Ni/LSMO and Au/LSMO metal-semiconductor interfaces. Phase-pure LSMO thin films deposited on n+ Si substrates were lithographically patterned and metallized to produce circular transfer length method (CTLM) based specific contact resistivity (ρc) and transfer length (LT) evaluation structures. Based on the electrical performance, interfacial reactivity and mechanical stability of the three metal junctions, the lowest ρc and LT metal for LSMO films on Si is identified for device applications.
The ferroelectric properties of anisotropically strained SrTiO3 films are analyzed by detailed measurements of the complex dielectric constant as function of temperature, frequency, bias voltage and electric field direction. The strain induces a relaxor-ferroelectric phase that persists up to room temperature. However, transition temperature and ferroelectric properties strongly depend on the orientation of the electric field and therefore on the amount of structural strain in the given electric field direction. Frequency and time dependent relaxation experiments reveal the presence and properties of polar nanoregions with randomly distributed directions of dipole moments in the film.
Epitaxial rhombohedral Pb(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3films with (100) and (110)/(10-1) and (111)/(11-1) orientations were grown on various kinds of singlecrystal substrates having different thermal expansion coefficient. Volume fractions of (110) and (111) orientations in respective (110)/(10-1) and (111)/(11-1)-oriented films were almost linearly increased with increasing thermal strain, εthermal, applied to the films that wasgenerated under the cooling process after the deposition from the growth temperature to the Curie temperature.Observed saturationpolarization (Psat)was changed linearly with the volume fractions of (110) and (111) orientations, in the same manner asthe volume fractions of (001) and (101) orientations in (001)/(100) and (101)/(110) oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 filmsreported previously. These results showed that the volume fraction of the non-180o domains Pb(Zr,Ti)O3films of both tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetriescan be manipulated by εthermal, which brings possibly to control the Psat value.