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Transparent electronic devices that retain their electrical properties upon stretching and twisting are envisioned to be used in transparent wearable electronics and stretchable displays. An integral part of stretchable transparent electronic devices is the stretchable transparent conductor. In this work, we demonstrate biaxially stretchable transparent conductors that use metallic single-walled carbon nanotube films. Two dimensionally buckled metallic single-walled carbon nanotube films are realized. The “wavy” film “flattens out” when stretched and its electrical resistance hardly changes up to 3% applied strain. A similar film without any buckled structures suffers a severe degradation in electrical conductivity. Besides exhibiting stretchability, these transparent conductors display good sheet resistance (down to 3 kΩ/□) and transmittance (∼ 80% at a wavelength of 550 nm).
The surface energy quantifies the disruption of intermolecular bond that occurs when a surface is created. The paper discusses critical size dc of mono-dispersed nanometer particle by analyzing the change of interfacial surface energy. The traditional theory neglects that the mono-dispersed nanometer particle has quantum standing wave in its internal structure with a size below critical dc. During the preparation of mono-dispersed nanometer powder, the large surface energy is formed ont only by cutting surface bond but also by forming quantum standing wave that opposites to interfacial edge unsaturated bond on the nanometer partcile surface atom. The preparation process of nanometer material needs more energy than the size surpass dc material. The new theory can explain why the melting point of nanometer powder decreases and other phenomina of nanometer material.
Carbon/carbon composites (C/C composites) possess superior characteristics of low density, high strength, extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion, high fatigue resistance. In carbonization process, the high temperature pyrolysis made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and other elements, results in a lot of voids and cavities generated in the interior of C/C composites. Therefore, the C/C composites are densified to fill the void by using repeated impregnation. But densification is a time-wasting and complex process, which increases production costs in the manufacturing process.
In this study, the Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) were adopted as reinforcement material for C/C composites to reduce the existence of voids or cavities and enhance the mechanical properties of C/C composites under environment aging effects. Three different temperature with high moisture conditions are used to be tested, including high temperature (150°C/ 90%RH), room temperature (25°C/90%RH), and low temperature (-15°C/90%RH) to analyze the mechanical properties of C/C composites, such as flexural and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS).
Well ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of interest for a broad range of potential applications including energy storage and as catalyst supports. On some substrates such as copper and nickel, CNTs do not grow well or at all. We have previously shown that mesoporous silica thin films can be deposited onto metal substrates including copper and nickel, and that, after removal of the templating surfactant, the mesoporous silica film can be used as template for the electrodeposition of metals to give metal nanostructures.[Campbell et. al., Micro. Meso. Mater., 97, 114-121 (2006)] The size of the metal nanostructures makes them attractive as seeds for growth of CNTs. We have found that under appropriate conditions nickel deposited into mesoporous silica can act as catalyst for CNT growth on a number of different substrates including copper coated silicon wafers, and nickel foam. Using three different furnaces and different feed streams it was found that the growth is sensitive to carbon source; acetylene and ethylene both produced CNTs whereas attempts to produce CNTs using xylene have so far been unsuccessful.
Well ordered mesoporous silica thin films could potentially give arrays of nanorod seeds, leading to well ordered arrays of CNTs, SEM images of some of our samples show dense CNT arrays, but do not indicate significant ordering.
The main subject of this paper is to examine and to evaluate the capacitive behaviour of activated carbon electrodes electrochemically decorated by quinone-type functional groups. For this purpose, different electrolytes, i.e. hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol at the concentration of 0.38 mol L-1, dissolved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4, 1 mol L-1 Li2SO4 and 6 mol L-1 KOH were used. These electrolytes could generate electroactive groups (able to undergo reversible redox reactions) on the surface of electrode material. Apart from typical adsorption of the mentioned dihydroxybenzenes, so called grafting could occur and might cause generation of quinone|hydroquinone functionals on carbon surface. As an effect of functional reversible redox reaction, additional capacitance value, called pseudocapacitance, could be achieved. Hence, besides typical charge originating from charging/discharging of the electrical double layer on the electrode/electrolyte interface, additional capacitance comes also from faradaic reactions. Activated carbons are the most promising electrode materials for this purpose; apart from great physicochemical properties, they are characterized by well-developed specific surface area over 2000 m2 g-1 which results in high capacitance values.
In the manuscript the influence of the hydroxyl group location as well as electrolyte solution pH on the electrochemical performance of the electrode is discussed.
The shear deformations of pillared-graphene nanostructures are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Slight anisotropy regarding the direction of a shear load is detected. Changing the loading area in graphene and the radius of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) as a pillar, the deformations near the joints of graphene and a SWNT are examined in detail. It is concluded the anisotropy of the shear deformation of the nanostructure is due to the atomic structures at the joints of graphene and a SWNT as a pillar, and the out-of-plane deformations of graphene near the joints dominantly affect the overall shear deformation of the nanostructure.
Ultra-thin flakes of layered materials have recently been attracting widespread research interest due to their exotic properties. In this work, we study the optoelectronic response of a hybrid of two such materials – graphene and MoS2. Our devices consist of mechanically exfoliated graphene flakes transferred on top of similarly exfoliated MoS2. The electrical response of the hybrid is studied in the presence of white light. We show that the four-point resistance of graphene is modulated in the presence of light. This effect is observed to be a strong function of gate voltage. We have also extended our studies to CVD (chemical vapor deposition) - grown graphene transferred onto MoS2 which show qualitatively similar features, thereby attesting to the scalability of the device architecture.
As produced, raw carbon nanotubes are not soluble in many solvents necessary for printing applications. Standard methods for circumventing this problem involve sidewall functionalization and surfactants. Sidewall functionalization invariably destroys the π-network that gives carbon nanotubes their useful electronic properties, while surfactants deposit an insulating layer onto the carbon nanotube surface that must be washed off to regain the desired properties. Non-covalent functionalization offers the possibility to achieve solubility without destroying the π-network, but published methods have resulted in relatively low concentrations or substandard electronic performance. We have developed a scalable method to non-covalently functionalize long (> 3 μm) carbon nanotubes with simple pyrene derivatives. This method produces highly dispersed solutions with concentrations as high as 2.5 g/l that can be used to produce conductive coatings with sheet resistance as low as 350 Ω/sq with 85% transmittance at 550 nm without post-deposition washing or doping treatments. The functionalized carbon nanotubes can be formulated into solutions that can be printed by ink-jet deposition, Aerosol-Jet® deposition, screen printing, and spray coating for printed electronics fabrication, and the solutions are stable for months without signs of bundling.
This research presents a new fabrication method for tailoring polymer/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanostructures with controlled architecture and composition. The CNTs are finely dispersed in a polymeric latex i.e. polyacrylate, via ultrasonication, followed by a microfiltration process. The later step allows preserving the homogeneous dispersion structure in the resulting solid nanocomposite. The combination of microfiltration and proper choice of the polymer latex allows for the design of complex nanostructures with tunable properties e.g., porosity, mechanical properties. An important attribute of this methodology is the ability to tailor any desired composition of polymer-CNTs systems, i.e., nanotubes content can practically vary anywhere between 0 to 100 wt%. Thus, for the first time a given polymer/CNTs system is studied over the entire CNTs composition, resembling immiscible binary polymer blends. The polymer in these systems exhibits a structural transition from a continuous matrix (nanocomposite) to segregated domains dispersed within a porous CNTs network. An analogy of this structural transition to phase inversion phenomena in immiscible polymer blends is suggested.
We report an increase in superconducting temperature of magnesium diboride (MgB2) by minute single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) inclusions. The SWCNTs concentration was varied from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The temperature dependence resistivity of sintered MgB2- SWCNTs composites containing 0.1wt%, 0.5wt% and 1.0wt% were measured and compared with that of the pure MgB2. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of the MgB2 increased from 40 K to as high as 42.4 K for the MgB2 containing 0.5wt% of SWCNTs. The room temperature resistivity ratio (RRR) shows dependence on the sample composition. The temperature width (ΔT) decreases with increasing SWCNT content from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The normal state resistivity data were fitted with the generalized Block-Grüneisen function obtaining a Debye temperature of ∼ 900K.
Hemin immobilized reduced graphene(HGN) has been investigated to be an outstanding enzymatic catalysis in detection important molecular recently. In this work, two "clean" methods to prepare HGN through π-π stack were charactered by UV-vis spectra, TEM images, and δ-potential. The enzymatic catalysis of both materials was compared by catalytic hydrogen peroxide to oxidize pyrogallol. The colorimetric result shows HGN attached before reduction has stronger catalytic ability than the one after reduction. The optimized HGN was then used as an electrochemical biosensor to determine L-tyrosine levels. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out for the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE), and the optimized hemin-reduced graphene electrode (HGN1/GCE). The HGN1/GCE based biosensor exhibits a Tyrosine detection linear range from 5×10-7 M to 4×10-5 M with a detection limitation of 7.5×10-8 M at signal noise ratio (S/N) of 3. In comparison with other biosensor, electrochemical biosensors are easy-fabricated, easy-controlled, and cost-effective. Compared with other materials, the hemin-reduced graphene based biosensors demonstrate higher stability, a broader detection linear range, and better detection sensitivity. The study of oxidation scheme reveals that reduced graphene enhanced the electron transfer between electrode and hemin. Meanwhile, the hemin groups effectively electrocatalyzed the oxidation of tyrosine. This study contributes to a widespread clinical application of nanomaterial based biosensor devices with a broader detection linear range, improved stability, enhanced sensitivity, and reduced costs.
Two dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials such as few graphite layers or graphene are extensively studied due to their unique properties suitable to be exploiting in a wide range of technological applications. Recently, the growth of high quality graphene monolayers using insects and waste as carbon precursors was reported in the literature. This methodology opened a new way to convert the waste carbon into a high-value-added product. In the present work coconut coir dust, an agroindustrial biomass, was used as biotemplate for preparing carbonaceous materials. Carbon structures were synthesized through pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere (100mL/min) at 500, 1000, and 1500°C during 2 hours. Starting materials were coconut coir dust in natura and coconut coir dust hydrothermally treated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Raman spectra showed the D band for all samples, related to the presence of defects in sp2 carbon structure and G band, indicative of graphite crystallites. It was also observed that the sample carbonized at 1500°C from coconut coir dust treated by hydrothermal method showed G’ band at 2685cm-1 associated with the stacking order along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a broad peak around 2θ= 22° related to the presence of amorphous carbon. By increasing the pyrolysis temperature changes in XRD diffractograms were observed and the sample which was pyrolysed at 1500°C from coconut coir dust hydrothermally treated showed peaks at 2θ= 26.5°, 43° e 45° assigned to (002), (100) (101) graphite plans, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of overlapping sheets and plates. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of coconut coir dust in natura unveiled the formation of amorphous sheet. Coconut coir dust in natura and treated by the hydrothermal method pyrolysed at 1500°C, lead to the formation of some graphitic domains and few graphene layers.
Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt. % total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT0.1 dispersed in SLG0.9/PDMS samples (subscripts represents weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm-1 in compression (-10% strain) to 10 cm-1 in tension (50% strain), and an increase in elastic modulus of ∼103% was observed for MWNT0.1SLG0.9/PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Presence of MWNTs in the matrix reduced the segmental polymeric chain length and provided limited extensibility to the chains. This in turn eliminated compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites.
This work focuses on the patterning of SiC substrates prior to carbon nanotube (CNT) formation using the surface decomposition growth method for the purpose of improving the field emission capabilities of the resultant CNT film. The thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates is an established approach to create highly dense arrays of vertically aligned CNTs. The attractiveness of this growth approach is that the CNTs form without the aid of a catalyst metal, yielding potentially defect free CNTs ideal for various applications. Due to the high temperature anneals (1400-1700oC) and moderate vacuum conditions (10−2 – 10−5 Torr) necessary for the thermal decomposition process to initiate on the SiC substrate, patterning CNT outcroppings ideal for enhancing the surface’s field emission properties is more difficult when compared to metal catalyst based chemical vapor deposition growth processes on silicon substrates. The intent of the SiC patterning is to reduce field screening effects between neighboring emission sites during field emission while maintaining a high emission site density. Specifically, the SiC substrate is etched to form μm scale pillars on the SiC surface. Experimental findings show that SiC substrates patterned with μm scale pillars can be decomposed to form CNT topped field emission sites, yielding a field emission substrate that outperforms a non-patterned SiC/CNT film. A turn-on electric field of 4.0 V/μm was measured.
Carbon nanotubes patterns of micron-level resolution have been achieved using inkjet printing of DNA and SDS assisted CNT dispersions. DNA/CNT film has a significantly higher resistance compared to SDS/CNT film. Taking advantage of the porous nature of printed SDS/CNT film after SDS removal, indium can be electroplated to fill the CNT network and form a CNT/In composite. The CNT/In composite was used as interconnect material. Reworkability and RF performance of In-plated CNT bump structures are studied and the results are presented.
Treatment of [Li+@C60](PF6–) with 30% fuming sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis gave hydroxylated derivative Li+@C60O–(OH)7. Its structure was deduced by IR, NMR, MALDI-TOF/FAB MS, and elemental analysis. Notably, the reaction of [Li+@C60](PF6–) was site-selective, giving a single major isomer (ca. 70%) with two minor isomers, in marked contrast to the case of empty C60. Furthermore, the results clearly indicate that the internal Li cation was strongly shielded by the surface dipolar hydroxyl groups, and thus it appears that the properties of endohedral fullerenes can be controlled by the external modification of the fullerene cage. Whereas Li+@C60 is relatively insoluble, Li+@C60O–(OH)7 was found to be highly soluble in polar solvents such as DMSO and DMF. The increased solubility is especially desirable for biological/medicinal assays and applications in such research fields.
In this paper we demonstrate that graphene is one of the best materials for new types of terahertz lasers as optical and/or injection pumping of graphene can exhibit negative-dynamic conductivity in the terahertz spectral range. We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The latter provides a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers. We benchmark graphene as a prospective material for injection-type terahertz lasers.
The structures and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under torsions are investigated using first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory. A SWNT of the chiral indices (5,0) is equilibrated under a torsion, and its equilibrium energy is obtained. It is revealed there is a structure having the minimum energy at a torsion of a specific angle of twist between 0 deg/Å and 1.88 deg/Å. Next, shear deformations corresponding to torsions imposed on the SWNTs of the chiral indices (5,0) and (5,1) are given to graphene sheets, and their energy band structures are calculated. It is concluded their band gaps decrease with the increase of the specific angle of twist.
We present results on an aqueous symmetric double layer electrochemical capacitor (EDLC) constructed with a flexible binder-free single wall carbon (SWCNTs) membrane as electrodes. The capacitors were cycled from 0 to 1V @ 10 A/g for 10,000 cycles with 99.9% coulombic efficiency and 94% energy efficiency, and 100% depth of discharge. The power performance of the aqueous symmetric SWCNTs membrane capacitor is almost 100 –1000 times better than commercial non-aqueous EDLC capacitors.
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a transportation mechanism of hydrogen molecules enabled by the torsional buckling instability of carbon nanoscrolls. The transportation mechanism is shown to be of high efficacy and robust over a range of loading rates. The findings shed light on potential application of carbon nanoscroll based hydrogen storage.