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Transparent, high refractive index oxides: Control of the nanostructure of titanium hafnium oxide alloys by variation of the ion energy during reactive magnetron sputtering deposition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2015

Juan J. Díaz León
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
Matthew P. Garrett
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
David M. Fryauf
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
Junce Zhang
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
Kate J. Norris
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
Sharka M. Prokes
Affiliation:
Code 6786, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA)
Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi
Affiliation:
Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A. Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR) Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, U.S.A.
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Abstract

A range of optical and optoelectronic applications would benefit from high refractive index (n), dense and transparent films that guide, concentrate and couple light. However, materials with high n usually have a high optical extinction coefficient (κ) which keeps these materials from being suitable for optical components that require long optical paths. We studied titanium hafnium oxide alloy films to obtain high refractive index (n>2) with minimum optical extinction coefficients (κ < 10−5) over the visible and near IR spectrum (380-930 nm). Titanium hafnium oxide alloys were deposited using pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering with and without RF substrate bias on silicon dioxide. For a given deposition condition intended for a specific titanium/hafnium molar fraction ratio, the ion energy of deposition species was explicitly controlled by varying the RF substrate bias. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the films. It appears that applying RF substrate bias reduces the nanocrystalline size, changes the surface morphology and increases the refractive index while maintaining comparable titanium/hafnium cation molar fraction. Precise control of the nanostructure of ternary metal oxides can alter their macroscopic properties, resulting in improved optical films.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2015 

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Transparent, high refractive index oxides: Control of the nanostructure of titanium hafnium oxide alloys by variation of the ion energy during reactive magnetron sputtering deposition
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Transparent, high refractive index oxides: Control of the nanostructure of titanium hafnium oxide alloys by variation of the ion energy during reactive magnetron sputtering deposition
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