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Transition Metal-Doped ZnO: A Comparison of Optical, Magnetic, and Structural Behavior of Bulk and Thin Films

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

William E. Fenwick
Affiliation:
fenwick@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
Matthew H. Kane
Affiliation:
mhkane@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
Zaili Fang
Affiliation:
zaili@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
Tahir Zaidi
Affiliation:
tahir@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
Nola Li
Affiliation:
nola@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
Varatharajan Rengarajan
Affiliation:
vrajan@cermetinc.com, Cermet, Inc., 1019 Collier Rd., Atlanta, GA, 30318, United States
Jeff Nause
Affiliation:
jnause@cermetinc.com, Cermet, Inc., 1019 Collier Rd., Atlanta, GA, 30318, United States
Ian T. Ferguson
Affiliation:
ianf@ece.gatech.edu, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA, 30332-0250, United States
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Abstract

Transition metal-doped ZnO bulk crystals and thin films have been investigated to determine the effects of transition metal incorporation on optical, magnetic, and structural properties of ZnO. A modified melt growth technique was used to grow bulk Zn1-xMnxO, Zn1-xCoxO, and Zn1-xFexO. Optical transmission measurements show an apparent shift in absorption edge with increasing transition metal incorporation. Raman spectroscopy also shows increasing lattice disorder with increasing transition metal concentration. ZnO thin films doped with Ni, Co, and Gd were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). While the Co-doped thin films showed antiferromagnetic behavior, magnetic hysteresis was observed in the Ni-doped and Gd-doped thin films. Structural quality was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical properties were investigated using room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optical transmission measurements. Properties of ZnO:TM bulk crystals and thin films are compared and used to discuss possible origins of ferromagnetism in these materials.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2007

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