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Three-dimensional sub-wavelength fabrication by integration of additive and subtractive femtosecond-laser direct writing

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 March 2013

Wei Xiong
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
Yunshen Zhou
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
Xiangnan He
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
Yang Gao
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
Masoud Mahjouri-Samani
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
Tommaso Baldacchini
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A. Technology and Applications Center, Newport Corporation, 1791 Deere Avenue, Irvine CA 92606, U.S.A.
Yongfeng Lu
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511, U.S.A.
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Abstract

Additive nanofabrication by two-photon polymerization (TPP) has recently drawn increased attention due to its sub-100 nm resolution and truly three-dimensional (3D) structuring capability. However, besides additive processes, subtractive process is also demanded for many 3D fabrications. Method possessing both additive and subtractive fabrication capabilities was rarely reported. In this study, we developed a complementary 3D micro/nano-fabrication process by integrating both additive two-photon polymerization (TPP) and subtractive multi-photon ablation (MPA) into a single platform of femtosecond-laser direct writing process. Functional device structures were successfully fabricated including: polymer fiber Bragg gratings containing periodic holes of 500-nm diameter and 3D micro-fluidic systems containing arrays of channels of 1-µm diameter. The integration of TPP and MPA processes enhances the nanofabrication efficiency and enables the fabrication of complex 3D micro/nano-structures that are impractical to produce by either TPP or MPA alone, which is promising for a wide range of applications including integrated optics, metamaterials, MEMS, and micro-fluidics.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013

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Three-dimensional sub-wavelength fabrication by integration of additive and subtractive femtosecond-laser direct writing
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