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Soft X-Rays for Deep Sub-100 Nm Lithography, with and Without Masks

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2011

Henry I. Smith
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
D. J. D. Carter
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J. Ferrera
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
D. Gil
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J. Goodberlet
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J. T. Hastings
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
M. H. Lim
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
M. Meinhold
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
R. Menon
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
E. E. Moon
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
C. A. Ross
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
T. Savas
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
M. Walsh
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
F. Zhang
Affiliation:
Research Laboratory of Electronics, Nanostructures Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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Abstract

The development of micro- and nanofabrication, their applications, and their dependent industries has progressed to a point where a bifurcation of technology development will likely occur. On the one hand, the semiconductor industry (at least in the USA) has decided to develop EUV and SCALPEL to meet its future needs. Even if the semiconductor industry is successful in this (which is by no means certain) such tools will not be useful in most other segments of industry and research that will employ nanolithography. As examples, MEMS, integrated optics, biological research, magnetic information storage, quantum-effect research, and multiple applications not yet envisioned will not employ the lithography tools of the semiconductor industry, either because they are too expensive, insufficiently flexible, or lacking in accuracy and spatial-phase coherence. Of course, direct-write electron-beam lithography can meet many of these non-semiconductor-industry needs, but in other cases a technique of higher throughput or broader process-latitude is necessary. Our experience at MIT in applying low-cost proximity x-ray nanolithography to a wide variety of applications leads us to conclude that this technology can provide an alternative path of a bifurcation. A new projection lithography technique, zone-plate-array lithography (ZPAL), does not require a mask, can operate from UV to EUV to x-rays, and has the potential to reach the limits of the lithographic process.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2000

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