Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-g4d8c Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-29T14:21:47.414Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Smart Surfaces: Use of Electrokinetics for Selective Modulation of Biomolecular Affinities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 January 2012

Sam Emaminejad
Stanford University, Stanford, California, U.S.A Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford, California, U.S.A
Mehdi Javanmard
Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford, California, U.S.A
Robert W. Dutton
Stanford University, Stanford, California, U.S.A
Ronald W. Davis
Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford, California, U.S.A
Get access


With the aid of negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) force in conjunction with shear force and at an optimal sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration we demonstrated a switch-like functionality to elute immuno-bound beads from the surface. At an optimal flow rate and NaOH concentration, nDEP turned on results in bead detachment, whereas when nDEP is off, the beads remain attached. This platform offers the potential for performing a bead-based multiplexed immunoassay where in a single channel various regions are immobilized with a different antibody, each targeting a different antigen. As a proof of concept we demonstrated the ability of nDEP to provide this switching behavior in a singleplex assay for the interactions that were in the same order of magnitude in strength as typical antibody-antigen interactions.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1. Voldman, J.; Braff, R. A.; Toner, M.; Gray, M. L.; Schmidt, M. A., Holding Forces of Single-Particle Dielectrophoretic Traps. Biophysical Journal 2001, 80(1), 531542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Li, H.; Yanan, Z.; Akin, D.; Bashir, R., Characterization and modeling of a microfluidic dielectrophoresis filter for biological species. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of 2005, 14(1), 103112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Crews, N.; Darabi, J.; Voglewede, P.; Guo, F.; Bayoumi, A., An analysis of interdigitated electrode geometry for dielectrophoretic particle transport in micro-fluidics. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2007, 125(2), 672679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Hughes, M. P.; Morgan, H., Dielectrophoretic Characterization and Separation of Antibody-Coated Submicrometer Latex Spheres. Analytical Chemistry 1999, 71(16), 34413445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Cheng, I., An integrated dielectrophoretic chip for continuous bioparticle filtering, focusing, sorting, trapping, and detecting. Biomicrofluidics 2007, 1 (2), 021503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Lee, H. J.; Yasukawa, T.; Shiku, H.; Matsue, T., Rapid and separation-free sandwich immunosensing based on accumulation of microbeads by negative-dielectrophoresis. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2008, 24(4), 10001005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Suzuki, M.; Yasukawa, T.; Shiku, H.; Matsue, T., Negative dielectrophoretic patterning with different cell types. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2008, 24(4), 10431047.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Baek, S. H.; Chang, W.-J.; Baek, J.-Y.; Yoon, D. S.; Bashir, R.; Lee, S. W., Dielectrophoretic Technique for Measurement of Chemical and Biological Interactions. Analytical Chemistry 2009, 81(18), 77377742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Gadish, N.; Voldman, J., High-Throughput Positive-Dielectrophoretic Bioparticle Microconcentrator. Analytical Chemistry 2006, 78(22), 78707876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed