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Realization of 3D Isotropic Negative Index Materials using Massively Parallel and Manufacturable Microfabrication and Micromachining Technology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Logeeswaran VJ
Affiliation:
lvjay@ucdavis.edu, University of California at Davis, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Kemper Hall,, One Shields Ave,, DAVIS, CA, 95616, United States
M. Saif Islam
Affiliation:
sislam@ucdavis.edu, University of California at Davis, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Kemper Hall,, One Shields Ave,, DAVIS, CA, 95616, United States
Mei Lin Chan
Affiliation:
cmlchan@ucdavis.edu, University of California at Davis, Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, Bainer Hall,, One Shields Ave,, DAVIS, CA, 95616, United States
David A Horsley
Affiliation:
dahorsley@ucdavis.edu, University of California at Davis, Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, Bainer Hall,, One Shields Ave,, DAVIS, CA, 95616, United States
Wei Wu
Affiliation:
wei.wu@hp.com, Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Quantum Science Research, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, United States
Shih-Yuan Wang
Affiliation:
sywang@hp.com, Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Quantum Science Research, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, United States
R. Stanley Williams
Affiliation:
stan.williams@hp.com, Hewlett Packard Laboratories, Quantum Science Research, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, United States
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Abstract

In this paper, we present a method to realize a three dimensional (3D) homogeneous and isotropic negative index materials (3D-NIMs) fabricated using a low cost and massively parallel manufacturable microfabrication and microassembly technique. The construction of self-assembled 3D-NIM array was realized through two dimensional (2-D) planar microfabrication techniques exploiting the as-deposited residual stress imbalance between a bi-layer consisting of e-beam evaporated metal (650nm of chromium) and a structural layer of 500nm of low stress silicon nitride deposited by LPCVD on a silicon substrate.

A periodic continuation of a single rectangular unit cell consisting of split-ring resonators (SRR) and wires were fabricated to generate a 3D assembly by orienting them along all three Cartesian axes. The thin chromium and silicon nitride bi-layer is formed as hinges. The strain mismatch between the two layers curls the structural layer (flap) containing the SRR upwards. The self-assembled out-of-plane angular position depends on the thickness and material composing the bi-layer. This built-in stress-actuated assembly method is suitable for applications requiring a thin dielectric layer for the SRR. The split-ring resonators and other structures are created on the membrane which is then assembled into the 3-D configuration.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2006

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