Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-klmjj Total loading time: 0.223 Render date: 2021-09-19T06:13:13.139Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Photochemical Enzyme Co-Factor Regeneration: Towards Continuous Glutamate Monitoring with a Sol-Gel Optical Biosensor

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Jenna L. Rickus
Affiliation:
Neuroscience IDP, Neuroengineering Program
Allan J. Tobin
Affiliation:
Brain Research Institute
Jeffrey I. Zink
Affiliation:
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Bruce Dunn
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Get access

Abstract

Sol-gel encapsulation has recently surfaced as a successful approach to biomolecule immobilization. Proteins, including enzymes, are trapped in the pores of the sol-gel derived glass while retaining their spectroscopic properties and biological activity. Our current work extends the unique capabilities of biomolecule-doped sol-gel materials to the detection of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. We are developing an in vivo fiber optic biosensor for glutamate along with methods to achieve continuous monitoring. In our research to date we have encapsulated GDH in a silica sol-gel film on the tip of an optical fiber. GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and the simultaneous reduction of NAD+ to NADH. To quantify the glutamate concentration, we observe the rate of change of NADH fluorescence as a function of time. An important consideration for continuous in vivo monitoring is the incorporation of a selfsustaining NAD+ source. We have adopted a photochemical means of regenerating NAD+ from NADH, by irradiating thionine (3,7-diaminophenothiazin-5-ium) which we incorporate into the sol-gel sensor material. When excited with visible light (λabc∼ 596 nm), thionine undergoes a reaction with NADH resulting in a non-fluorescent form of thionine and NAD+. We have characterized the kinetics of this reaction in the sol-gel matrix, and have shown that the reaction results in regenerated co-factor that is usable by GDH for the oxidation of glutamate.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2002

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

[1] Alvarez, N.S. Ortea, P.M. Paneda, A.M. Castanon, M.J.L. Ordieres, A.J.M. and Blanco, P.T. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 502 (2001) 109117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[2] Dave, B.C. Dunn, B. Valentine, J.S. and Zink, J.I. Analytical Chemistry, 66 (1994) 1120A1127A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[3] Dunn, B. and Zink, J.I. Chemistry of Materials, 9 (1997) 22802291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[4] Pereira, A.C. Fertonani, F.L. Neto, G.d.O. Kubota, L.T. and Yamanaka, H. Talanta, 53 (2001) 801806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[5] Rickus, J.L. Dunn, B. and Zink, J.I. Optically Based Sol-Gel Biosensor Materials. In Ligler, F. and Taitt, C.R. (Eds.), Optical Biosensors: Present and Future, Elsevier, in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[6] Rickus, J.L. Lan, E. Tobin, A.J. Zink, J.I. and Dunn, B. Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Vol. 662, Materials Research Society, Boston Massachusetts, 2000.Google Scholar
[7] Sharma, A. Spectrochimica Acta, 48 (1992) 647651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[8] Sharma, A. Spectrochimica Acta, 48A (1992) 893897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[9] Sharma, A. and Quantrill, N.S.M. Spectrochimica Acta, 50A (1994) 11791193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[10] Tzang, C.H. Yaun, R. and Yang, M. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 16 (2001) 211219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Photochemical Enzyme Co-Factor Regeneration: Towards Continuous Glutamate Monitoring with a Sol-Gel Optical Biosensor
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Photochemical Enzyme Co-Factor Regeneration: Towards Continuous Glutamate Monitoring with a Sol-Gel Optical Biosensor
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Photochemical Enzyme Co-Factor Regeneration: Towards Continuous Glutamate Monitoring with a Sol-Gel Optical Biosensor
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *