Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-jr42d Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-18T15:39:23.720Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

PCT Leach Tests of Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIPped) Zeolitic Concretes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 September 2012

D. D. Siemer
Affiliation:
LITCO, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415–3485
Delia M. Roy
Affiliation:
Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
Michael W. Grutzeck
Affiliation:
Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
M. L. D. Gougar
Affiliation:
Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
Barry E. Scheetz
Affiliation:
Materials Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.
Get access

Abstract

The logical place for the US Federal government to site a permanent repository for its massive accumulation of cold-war reprocessing radwaste would be at its primary cold-war nuclear device testing reservation, the Nevada Test Site(1). Regardless of whether it eventually chooses to implement that repository by drilling lateral “drifts” into consolidated rock (e.g. its proposed Yucca Mountain facility) or by augering moderately-deep boreholes into unwelded alluvium beds (e.g. the “Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) repository implemented at Frenchman Flats in 1984 (2), zeolitic hydroceramic materials would be more stable than would glasses. The thermodynamic rationale for this is that in such regions, soil solutions and soil gasses both tend to “weather” buried natural glasses to zeolitic materials(3). It has also been demonstrated that the same type of phases form when properly designed cementitious “grouts” are cured under mild hydrothermal conditions(4,5) - precisely those conditions assumed by DOE's repository modelers for “failed” (i.e. flooded) repositories and under which radwaste-type glasses rapidly decompose to form crystalline zeolitic phases(6,7).

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1997

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

1. Winograd, I.J., “Radioactive Waste Disposal in Thick Unsaturated Zones”, Science Vol. 212. PP 14571464 (1981).Google Scholar
2. EBonanno, J. et al. , ‘The Disposal of Orphan Wastes Using the Greater Confinement Disposal Facility”, Waste management '91, vol. 1, Post & Wacker, Eds. Pp 861868 (1991).Google Scholar
3. Surdan, R.C. and Sheppard, R.A., “Zeolites in Saline, Alkaline Lake Deposits”, Proceedings of Zeolite 76, International conference on the Occurrence, Properties and Utilization of natural Zeolites, Sand, L.B. and Mumpton, F.A., Eds., Pergamon Press, pp 145174 (1976).Google Scholar
4. Atkins, M., Glasser, F.P. and Jack, J.J., “Zeolite P in Cements: its Potential for Immobilizing Toxic and Radioactive Waste species”, Waste Management, Vol. 151, pp 127135 (1995).Google Scholar
5. LaRosa, J.L., Kwan, S. and Grutzeck, M.W., “Self-generating Zeolite Cement Composites”, Mat. Res. Soc., vol. 245, pp 211216 (1992).Google Scholar
6. Ebert, W.L., Bates, K.K. and Bourcier, W.L., “The Hydration of Borosilicate Glass in Liquid Water and Steam at 200 C”, Waste Management, vol 11, pp 205221 (1991).Google Scholar
7. “Solidification of High-level Radioactive Wastes, NUREG/CR-895, pp 116118 (1979).Google Scholar
8. Gougar, M.L.D., M.S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University (1997).Google Scholar
9. Gougar, M.L.D., Siemer, D.D. and Scheetz, B.E., “Verifiable Concrete for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Reprocessing Wastes from INEL”, Mat. Res. Soc., Vol. 412, pp 395402 (1996).Google Scholar
10. Gougar, M.L.D., Siemer, D.D. and Scheetz, B.E., “Disposal of INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Waste Using a Glass-Forming Cement”, Proceedings of the embedded topical Meeting on DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel & Fissile material Management, ANS, pp 359366 (1996).Google Scholar
11. Federal Register, Vol. 57, No. 101, Tuesday, May 26, 1992, pp 2204622047 (discusses BDAT status of HIPing ICPP-type HLW).Google Scholar
12. Siemer, D.D., “Hot Isostatically Pressed concrete as a Radwaste Form”, Amer. Cer. Soc., Symposium on Waste Management, pp 657664 (1995).Google Scholar
13. Siemer, D.D., Scheetz, Barry E. and Gougar, M.L., “Hot Isotatic Press (HIP) Vitrification of Radwaste Concretes”, Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIX, Mat. Res. Soc, Vol. 412, pp 403410 (1995).Google Scholar
14. In a rigorous sense, none of the grout formulations really represent “pure” mineral phases because many of the materials used in compounding them contain low percentages of elements other than calcium, sodium, potassium, aluminum and silicon. For instance the formulation labeled “anorthite” (CaAl2Si2O8) had a composition more along the lines of CaAl1.96.Si2.03.Fe0.0.47.Mg0.06Na0.023Na0.009K0.009O8.39. Of course, in nature, zeolite, feldspar and feldspathoid minerals also contain appreciable amounts of minor and trace elements in their structures.Google Scholar
15. Sand, L.B. and Mumpton, F.A., Natural Zeolites, 546 pp., Pergamon Press, NY (1978).Google Scholar
16. Gottardi, G. and Galli, E., Natural Zeolites, 409 pp., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1985).Google Scholar
17. Kaushal, S., Roy, D.M., Licastro, P.H. and Langton, C.A., ‘Thermal Properties of Fly Ash Substituted Cement Waste Forms for Disposal of Savannah River Plant Salt, in Fly Ash and Coal Conversion Py-Products: Characterization. Utilization and Disposal II, Mat. Res. Soc, Vol. 165 Eds. McCarthy, G.J., Glasser, F.P. and Roy, D.M. pp 311320 (1986).Google Scholar
18. Hoyle, S.L. and Grutzeck, M.W., “Incorporationy of Cesium by Hydrating Calcium Aluminosilicates.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72. pp. 1938–47 (1989).Google Scholar
19. Hoyle, S. and Grutzeck, M.W., “Effect of Pore Solution Composition on Cesium Leachability of Cement-Based Waste Forms,” in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management X, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 84, pp. 309317, Bates, J.K. and Seefeldt, W.B. (Eds.), Mat. Res. Soc., Pittsburgh, PA (1987).Google Scholar
20. Hoyle, S. and Grutzeck, M.W., “Effects of Phase Composition on the Cesium Leachability of Cement-Based Waste Forms,” in Waste Management'86, Proc. Waste Isolation, Tech. Prog. Public Ed. 3, pp. 491496, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (1986).Google Scholar
21. Barrer, R.M., “Zeolites and Clay Minerals as Sorbents and Molecular Sieves,” Academic Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
22. LaRosa, J., Kwan, S. and Grutzeck, M.W., “Zeolite Formation in Class F Fly Ash Blended Cement Pastes,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 75, 1574–80 (1992).Google Scholar
23. Grutzeck, M.W. and Siemer, D., “Zeolite-Cement Composite Synthesized from Fly Ash and Sodium Aluminate Waste”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (In prearation).Google Scholar
24. Jantzen, C.M. et al. , “Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material,” WSRC-TR-92–346, Rev, June 1, 1993.Google Scholar