Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5f95dd588d-qh9vm Total loading time: 0.2 Render date: 2021-10-28T19:05:29.066Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

On a Particle-Augmented Mixed Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

C. Fred Higgs
Affiliation:
higgs@andrew.cmu.edu, Carnegie Mellon Institute, Mechanical Engineering, 5000 Forbes Ave, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, United States, 4122682486, 4122683348
Elon J Terrell
Affiliation:
eterrell@andrew.cmu.edu, Carnegie Mellon University, Mechanical Engineering, 5000 Forbes Ave, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, United States
Michael Kuo
Affiliation:
mkuo@andrew.cmu.edu, Carnegie Mellon University, Mechanical Engineering, 5000 Forbes Ave, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, United States
Joseph Bonivel
Affiliation:
jbonivel@andrew.cmu.edu, Carnegie Mellon University, Mechanical Engineering, 5000 Forbes Ave, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, United States
Sarah Biltz
Affiliation:
sbiltz@andrew.cmu.edu, Carnegie Mellon University, Mechanical Engineering, 5000 Forbes Ave, Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, United States
Get access

Abstract

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a process commonly used to planarize or polish thin film surfaces to enable stacking of additional levels to enhance lithographic patterning of wafers. It is used to make surfaces atomically smooth and is also an interim step in integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. CMP is an example of a tribological regime called Particle-Augmented Mixed Lubrication (PAML) as named by the authors. PAML occurs when two surfaces in relative motion under load are partially separated by an intervening fluid-particle mixture. The load is supported by both asperities and fluid, and the interface is further complicated by the addition of nanoparticles. PAML involves four core components that must be modeled integrally—fluid mechanics, particle dynamics, contact mechanics, and material removal (wear). This work introduces the fundamental tenets of PAML, and describes how it is an effective first principle multi-physics approach to modeling CMP. By inputting the artificial random topographies for the pad and wafer with their actual mechanical properties, the PAML modeling simulation results predict the instantaneous material removal as the wear volume caused by particle-induced wear. These discrete instantaneous material removal events lead to the cumulative wear seen during CMP over a short time. Although only a small fraction of the time of the actual CMP process, tests of 120μs show that the cumulative material removal occurring over the entire simulation is approximately 0.012μm3. This work suggests that a generalized multi-physics modeling simulation of the CMP process is plausible.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Luo, J. and Dornfeld, D., “Material Removal Regions in Chemical Mechanical Planarization for Submicron Integrated Circuit Fabrication: Coupling Effects of Slurry Chemicals, Abrasive Size Distribution, and Wafer-Pad Contact Area,” IEEE Trans. on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 2003, 16(1): p. 4556.Google Scholar
2. Luo, J. F., Liu, Y. J. and Berger, E. J., “Analysis of two-dimensional thin structures (from micro- to nano-scales) using the boundary element method,” Computational Mechanics, 1998, 22(5): p. 404412.Google Scholar
3. Borst, C. L., Thakurta, D. G., Gill, W. N. and Gutmann, R. J., “Chemical-Mechanical Planarization of Low-k Polymers for Advanced IC Structures,” Journal of Electronic Packaging, Transactions of the ASME, 2002, 124(4): p. 362366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Jeng, Y.-R. and Tsai, H.-J., “Tribological analysis on powder slurry in chemical mechanical polishing,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2002, 35(13): p. 1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Cook, L. M., “Chemical Processes in Glass Polishing,” J. of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1990, 120: p. 152171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Thakurta, D. G., Schwendeman, D. W., Gutmann, R. J., Shankar, S., Jiang, L. and Gill, W. N., “Three-dimensional wafer-scale copper chemical-mechanical planarization model,” Thin Solid Films, 2002, 414(1): p. 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Borst, C. L., Gill, W. N. and Gutmann, R. J., Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of Low Dielectric Constant Polymers and Organosilicate Glasses, 2002, Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Seok, J., Sukam, C. P., Kim, A. T., Tichy, J. A. and Cale, T. S., “Multiscale Material Removal Modeling of Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” Wear, 2003, 254: p. 307320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Shan, L., Levert, J., Meade, L., Tichy, J. and Danyluk, S., “Interfacial Fluid Mechanics and Pressure Prediction in Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” Journal of Tribology, 2000, 122: p. 539543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10. Ng, S. H., Higgs, C. F. III, Borucki, L., Yoon, I., Osorno, A. and Danyluk, S. “Two-Dimensional Modeling of Interfacial Mechanics During Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” in Computational Mechanics: WCCM VI with APCOM, 2004.Google Scholar
11. Lin, J. F., Chern, J. D., Chang, Y. H., Kuo, P. L. and Tsai, M. S., “Analysis of the tribological mechanisms arising in the chemical mechanical polishing of copper-film wafers,” Journal of Tribology, 2004, 126(1): p. 185199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Ng, S. H., Borucki, L., Higgs, C. F. III, Yoon, I. and Danyluk, S., “Tilt and Interfacial Fluid Pressure Measurements of a Disk Sliding on a Polymeric Pad,” Journal of Tribology, 2005, 127(1): p. 198205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. Ng, S. H., Higgs, C. F., Yoon, I. and Danyluk, S., “An Analysis of Mixed Lubrication in Chemical Mechanical Polishing,” ASME Journal of Tribology, 2004, 126: p. 16.Google Scholar
14. Higgs, C. F. III, Ng, S. H., Borucki, L. and Danyluk, S., “A Mixed-Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP Fluid Pressure: Modeling and Experiments,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society., 2005, 152(3): p. 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15. Ng, S. H., Yoon, I., Higgs, C. F. III and Danyluk, S., “Wafer-bending measurements in CMP,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2004, 151(12): p. 819823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16. Higgs, C. F. III, Ng, S. H., Yoon, I., Shan, L., Yap, L. and Danyluk, S.Mechanical Modeling of the 2D Interfacial Slurry Pressure in CMP,” 2003, San Francisco, CA, United States: Materials Research Society.Google Scholar
17. Greenwood, J. A. and Williamson, J. B., “Contact of Nominally Flat Rough Surfaces,” Proc. Royal Society of London, 1966, A295: p. 300319.Google Scholar
18. Kim, A., Seok, J., Sukam, C., Tichy, J. and Cale, T. “Multiscale material removal modeling of chemical mechanical polishing,” in Advanced Metallization Conference, 2001.Google Scholar
19. Terrell, E., Garcia, J. and Higgs, C. F III. “Two-Phase Hydrodynamic Modeling of Particulate Fluids in Sliding Contacts,” in Proceedings of World Tribology Congress, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

On a Particle-Augmented Mixed Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

On a Particle-Augmented Mixed Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

On a Particle-Augmented Mixed Lubrication Approach to Predicting CMP
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *