Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-zgpz2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-10-01T19:10:01.269Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Nonlinear optical devices: Relative Status of Polymeric Materials

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2011

George I. Stegeman*
Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers University of Central Florida Orlando, FL 32826
Get access


Nonlinear optical phenomena have been investigated over the last three decades in many different materials and a great deal of progress has been made in both the basic science and device applications.(1] Although interest in nonlinear organic materials dates back to the early days of nonlinear optics, it is only in the last five years that progress has been sustained and rapid. The purpose of this paper is to examine progress in developing new nonlinear organic materials and in their application to devices for comparison with current state-of-the-art devices using other material systems.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1992

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1. see for example: Shen, Y.R. Principles of Nonlinear Optics, (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1984)Google Scholar
2. Risk, W.P., Optics and Photonics News, 1(5), 10 (1990).Google Scholar
3. Tien, P.K., Ulrich, R. and Martin, R.J., Appl. Phys. Lett., 17, 447 (1970); T. Tanuichi and K. Yamamoto, Oyo Buturi, 5, 1637 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Lim, E.J., Fejer, M.M. and Byer, R.L., Electron. Lett., 25, 174 (1989); J. Webjorn, F. Laurell and G. Arvidsson, IEEE J. Lightwave Techn., 7, 1597 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Ledoux, I., Josse, D., Vidakovic, P. and Zyss, J., Opt. Engin., 25, 202 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Bierlein, J.D., Cheng, L.K., Wang, Y. and Tam, W., Appl. Phys. Lett., 56, 423 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Levine, B.F., Bethea, C.G., Thurmond, C.D., Lunch, R.T. and Bernstein, J.L., J. Appl. Phys., 50, 2523 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Uemiya, T., Uenishi, U., Shimizu, Y., Okamoto, S., Chikuma, K., Tohma, T. and Umegaki, S., SPIE Proceedings, 1148, 207 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Rikken, G.L.J.A., Seppen, C.J.E., Nijhuis, S. and Meijer, E.W., Appl. Phys. Lett., 58, 435, (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10. Norwood, R.A. and Khanarian, G., Electronics Letters, Vol.26, p. 2105 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Cao, X.F., Yu, L.P. and Dalton, L.R., Technical Digest of the 1990 Optical Society of America annual meeting, paper ThE3, pp 165 (1990).Google Scholar
12. for example, Mohlmann, G.R., Horsthuis, W.G.H., van der Vorst, C.P.J.M., Donach, A.M., Copeland, M., Duchet, C., Fabre, P., Diemeer, M.B.J., Trommel, E.S., Suyten, F.M.M., Daele, P.V., Tomme, E.V. and Baets, R., Proc. SPIE 1147, 245 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. Blau, W., Opt. Commun., 64, 85 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14. Wu, J.W., Helfin, J.R., Norwood, R.A., Wong, K.Y., Zamani-Kamiri, O. and Garito, A.F., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 4, 707 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15. Harvey, T.G., Ji, W., Kar, A.K., Wherrett, B.S., Bloor, D. and Norman, P., Technical Digest of the 1990 CLEO meeting, paper CTUH67, page 146Google Scholar
16. Williams, V.S., Ho, Z.Z., Peyghambarian, N., Gibbons, W.M., Grasso, R.P., O'Brien, M.K., Shannon, P.J. and Sun, S.T., Appl. Phys. Lett., 57, 2399 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Marques, M.B., Assanto, G., Stegeman, G.I., Mohlmann, G.R., Erdhuisen, E.W.P. and Horsthuis, W.H.G., “Large, Nonresonant, Intensity-Dependent Refractive Index of DANS Side Chain Polymers in Waveguides”, Appl. Phys. Lett., in pressGoogle Scholar
18. Burzynski, R., Banhu, P., Prasad, P., Zanoni, R. and Stegeman, G.I., Appl. Phys. Lett., 53, 2011 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19. Townsend, P.D., Jackel, J.L., Baker, G.L., Shelbourne, J.A. III, Etemad, S., Appl. Phys. Lett., 55, 1829 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Coulter, D.R., Miskowski, V.M., Perry, J.W., Wei, T.-H., Van Stryland, E.W. and Hagan, D.J., Proceedings of SPIE Meeting on Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators and Limiters, SPIE 1105, 42 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Sauteret, C., Hermann, J.-P., Frey, R., Pradere, F., Ducuing, J., Baughman, R.H. and Chance, R.R., Phys. Rev. Lett., 128, 606, (1976)Google Scholar
22. Cojan, C., Agarwal, G.P. and Flytzanis, C., Phys. Rev. B, 15, 909 (1977); 17, 776 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23. Peyghambarian, N. and Koch, S.W., in Nonlinear Photonics, ed. by Gibbs, H.M., Khitrova, G. and Peyghamberian, N., (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), chapter 2Google Scholar
24. Rochford, K.B., Zanoni, R., Gong, Q., Torruellas, W.E. and Stegeman, G.I., SPIE 1147, 279 (1989); Y. Shi, W.H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Chen and L.R. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett., 58, 1131 (1991); D.Y. Zang, Y.Q. Shi, F.F. So, S.R. Forrest and W.H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett., 58, 562 (1991)Google Scholar
25. Kerkoc, P., Brossard, Ch., Arend, H. and Gunter, P., Appl. Phys. Lett., 54, 487 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26. Sohn, J.E., Singer, K.D., Kuzyk, M.G., Holland, W.R., Katz, H.E., Dirk, C.W., Schilling, M.L. and Comizzoli, R.B., Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshops on Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, Series E: Applied Sciences, (Kluwer Acad. Pub., London, 1989), 291–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27. Decher, G., Tieke, B., Brossard, Ch. and Gunter, P., J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1988, 933 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28. Boyd, G.D., Miller, R.C., Nassau, K., Bond, W.L. and Savage, A., Appl. Phys. Lett., 5, 234 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29. Chen, C.-T. and Liu, G.-Z., Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci., 16, 203 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Zumsteg, F.C., Bierlein, J.D. and Gier, T.E., J. Appl. Phys., 43, 4980 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31. Stegeman, G.I. and Seaton, C.T., Applied Physics Reviews (J. Appl. Physics), 58, R57 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
32. Suhara, T. and Nishihara, H., IEEE J. Quant. Electron., QE–26, 1265 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33. Bierlein, J.D., Digest of the 1991 Integrated Photonics Research Meeting, Opt. Soc. Am., Washington, 1991), paper ThClGoogle Scholar
34. Ch. Brossard, Flosheimer, M., Kupfer, M. and Gunter, P., Opt. Comm., in pressGoogle Scholar
35. Chang, T.Y., Opt. Engin., 20, 220 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36. Zhou, Q.L., Heflin, J.R., Wong, K.Y., Zamani-Khamiri, O. and Garito, A.F., Phys. Rev. A Rapid Comm., A3, 1673 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37 Lam, J.F., Forrest, S.R. and Tangonan, G.L., Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, 1614 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Assanto, G., Fortenberry, R.M., Seaton, C.T. and Stegeman, G.I., JOSA B, 5, 432 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39. Stegeman, G.I. and Wright, E.M., J.Optical and Quant. Electron., 22, 95 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40. Krol, D.M. and Thakur, M., Appl. Phys. Lett., 56, 1406, (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41. Ho, S.T., Thakur, M. and Laporta, A., IQEC Digest, paper QTUB 5, 40 (1990).Google Scholar
42. Rochford, K.B., Zanoni, R., Stegeman, G.I., Krug, W., Miao, E. and Beranek, M.W., Appl. Phys. Lett., 58, 13 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43. Sasaki, K., Fujii, K., Tomioka, T. and Kinoshita, T., J. Opt. Soc. Am., 5, 457 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44. Torruellas, W.E., Rochford, K.B., Zanoni, R. and Stegeman, G.I., Opt. Comm., 82, 94 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45. Sohler, W. and Suche, H., in Integrated Optics III, Hutcheson, L.D. and Hall, D.G., eds, Proc. SPIE, 408, 163 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46. Ishigame, Y., Suhara, T. and Nishihara, N., Opt. Lett., 16, 375, (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47. Spitzer, R.C., Swanson, D., Hansen, G., Aron, K., Sounik, J., Norwood, R., De Martino, R. and Stamatoff, J., Digest of the 1991 CLEO Meeting in Baltimore (OSA, Washington, 1991), paper CTuW4Google Scholar