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A Microstructural Comparison of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Grown from CuxSe and (In,Ga)2Se3 Precursors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2011

Andrew M Gabor
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
J. R. Tuttle
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
D. S. Albin
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
R. Matson
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
A. Franz
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
D. W. Niles
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
M. A. Contreras
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
A. M. Hermann
Affiliation:
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309–0390
R. Noufi
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80301
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Abstract

We fabricated CulnSe2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by two different pathways using physical vapor deposition. In the first we formed a Cu-Se precursor and then reacted it with a flux of (In,Ga) + Se. These films had large grains but were too rough for optimal device performance. In the other pathway, we first formed a smooth precursor of (In,Ga)2Se3 and then exposed it to a flux of Cu+Se. We overshot the optimal film composition to allow recrystallization of the film by a secondary CuxSe phase. We then consumed the excess CuxSe in a third stage deposition of (In,Ga) + Se. The recrystallization step increased the grain sizes, and the resulting films remained smooth. Photovoltaic solar cells made from these films have produced the highest total-area efficiencies of any non-single-crystal, thin-film solar cell.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1994

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References

[1] Gabor, A. M., Hermann, A. M., Tuttle, J. R., Contreras, M. A., Albin, D. S., Tennant, A., and Noufi, R., Proceedings of the 12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review Meeeting, edited by Noufi, R. (Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, 1993) (in press).Google Scholar
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A Microstructural Comparison of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Grown from CuxSe and (In,Ga)2Se3 Precursors
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A Microstructural Comparison of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Grown from CuxSe and (In,Ga)2Se3 Precursors
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