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Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Ti/Si-Based Wafer Bonding

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Jian Yu
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Yinmin Wang
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Arthur W. Haberl
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Hassa Bakhru
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Jian-Qiang Lu
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Ronald J. Gutmann
Affiliation:
Focus Center — New York, Rensselaer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) wafer-level integration is receiving increased attention with various wafer bonding approaches being evaluated. Recently, we explored an alternative lowtemperature Ti/Si-based wafer bonding, in which an oxidized silicon wafer was successfully bonded with a prime silicon wafer at 400°C using 30 nm sputtered Ti as adhesive. The bonded pairs show excellent bonding uniformity and mechanical integrity. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was applied to confirm the interdiffusion occurred in the interlayer. The bonding interface was examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) assisted with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Characterization of the bonding interface indicates the strong adhesion achieved is attributed to an amorphous layer formed by interdiffusion of Si and oxygen into Ti interlayer and the unique ability to reduce native oxide (SiO2) by Ti even at low temperatures.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2005

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