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Layer Cross-Fading at Organic/Organic Interfaces in OVPD-Processed Red Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes as a New Concept to Increase Current and Luminous Efficacy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Florian Lindla
Affiliation:
florian.lindla@rwth-aachen.de, RWTH Aachen University, Institut für theoretische Elektrotechnik, Aachen, Germany
Manuel Boesing
Affiliation:
boesingm@gan.rwth-aachen.de, RWTH Aachen University, Institut für theoretische Elektrotechnik, Aachen, Germany
Christoph Zimmermann
Affiliation:
zimmermann@gan.rwth-aachen.de, RWTH Aachen University, Institut für theoretische Elektrotechnik, Aachen, Germany
Frank Jessen
Affiliation:
jessen@ithe.rwth-aachen.de, RWTH Aachen University, Institut für theoretische Elektrotechnik, Aachen, Germany
Philipp van Gemmern
Affiliation:
philipp.van.gemmern@philips.com, Philips Technologie GmbH, Aachen, Germany
Dietrich Bertram
Affiliation:
dietrich.bertram@philips.com, United States
Dietmar Keiper
Affiliation:
d.keiper@aixtron.com, United States
Nico Meyer
Affiliation:
n.meyer@aixtron.com, AIXTRON AG, Aachen, Germany
M. Heuken
Affiliation:
m.heuken@aixtron.com, RWTH Aachen University, Institut für theoretische Elektrotechnik, Aachen, Germany
Holger Kalisch
Affiliation:
kalisch@ithe.rwth-aachen.de, United States
Rolf H. Jansen
Affiliation:
rhj@ithe.rwth-aachen.de, United States
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Abstract

The current and luminous efficacy of a red phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) with sharp interfaces between each of the organic layers can be increased from 18.8 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W (at 1,000 cd/m2) to 36.5 cd/A (+94%, 18% EQE) and 33.7 lm/W (+139%) by the introduction of a layer cross-fading zone at the hole transport layer (HTL) to emission layer (EL) interface. Layer cross-fading describes a procedure of linearly decreasing the fraction in growth rate of an organic layer during deposition over a certain thickness while simultaneously increasing the fraction in growth rate of the following layer. For OLED processing and layer cross-fading organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) is used. The typical observation of a roll-off in current efficacy of phosphorescent OLED to higher luminance can be reduced significantly. An interpenetrating network of a prevailing hole and a prevailing electron conducting material is created in the cross-fading zone. This broadens the recombination zone and furthermore lowers the driving voltage. The concept of layer cross-fading to increase the efficacies is suggested to be useful in multi-colored OLED stacks as well.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2009

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References

[1] Kondakova, M.E. et al. , J. of Appl. Phys. (2008) 104, 094501 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[2] Adachi, C. et al. , Organic Electronics (2001) 2, 37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[3] Kim, S.H. et al. , Appl. Phys. Let. (2008) 92, 02351 Google Scholar
[4] Boesing, M. et al. , Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2008) 1115, in pressGoogle Scholar
[5] Stöcker, , Taschenbuch der Physik, Verlag Harri Deutsch (2000)Google Scholar
[6] Merck, , Technical Data Sheet, not publishedGoogle Scholar
[7] Brüttig, W. Physics of Organic Semiconductors, Wiley-VCH (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Layer Cross-Fading at Organic/Organic Interfaces in OVPD-Processed Red Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes as a New Concept to Increase Current and Luminous Efficacy
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Layer Cross-Fading at Organic/Organic Interfaces in OVPD-Processed Red Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes as a New Concept to Increase Current and Luminous Efficacy
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