Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-hfldf Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-21T08:27:13.000Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Identifying Iron Oxide Based Materials that Can Either Pass or Not Pass through the in vitro Blood-Brain Barrier

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 February 2014

Di Shi
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Linlin Sun
Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Gujie Mi
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Soumya Bhattacharya
Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, JH 831007, India.
Suprabha Nayar
Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, JH 831007, India.
Thomas J Webster
Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Get access


In this study, an in vitro blood-brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). By comparing the permeability of FITC-Dextran at increasing exposure times in serum-free medium to such values in the literature, we confirm that the blood-brain barrier model was successfully established. After such confirmation, the permeability of five ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluid synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this model. In addition, all the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen had better permeability to the blood-brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, magnetic nanomaterials, such as ferrofluids, that are less permeable to the blood brain barrier can be used to decrease neural tissue toxicity and magnetic nanomaterials with more permeable to the blood-brain barrier can be used for brain drug delivery.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Hawkins, B.T., Davis, T.P., 2005. The blood–brain barrier/neurovascular unit in health and disease. Pharmacol. Rev. 57, 173185.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, RD, Foss, AJ, Leach, L (2007). "Establishment of a human in vitro model of the outer blood–retinal barrier". Journal of Anatomy 211(6): 707–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neuwelt, E.A., et al. . Engaging neuroscience to advance translational research in brain barrier biology, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12 (2011) 169182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pardridge, W. M. (1995). "Transport of small molecules through the blood-brain barrier: biology and methodology." Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 15(1-3): 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seong, DK, et al. . Magnetic targeting of nanoparticles across the intact blood–brain barrier, Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 164, Issue 1, 28 November 2012, Pages 49-57, ISSN 0168–3659Google Scholar
Christian, P, Olivier, Z, Olga, M. Magnetically enhanced nucleic acid delivery. Ten years of magnetofection—Progress and prospects, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2011; Volume 63, Issues 1415:1300-1331 Google Scholar
Iannetti, G.D., Wise, Richard G., BOLD functional MRI in disease and pharmacological studies: room for improvement?, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2007. Volume 25, Issue 6: 978988 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logothetis, NK, Pauls, J, Augath, M, Trinath, T, Oeltermann, A.Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature. 2001;412:150157 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nayar, S, Sinha, A, Pramanick, AK. A biomimetic process for the synthesis of aqueous ferrofluids for biomedical applications. Application number 0672DEL2010. March 22, 2010 Google Scholar
Dan, H, Lubna, S, Thomas, JW. Comparison of ferrofluid and powder iron oxide nanoparticle permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Int J. of Nanomedicine. 2012; 2012:7–1.Google Scholar
Bhattacharya, S., et al. . Protein-Polymer Functionalized Aqueous Ferrofluids Showing High T 2 Relaxivity. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2013; Vol. 9: 19 Google Scholar
Bennett, J, et al. . Blood–brain barrier disruption and enhanced vascular permeability in the multiple sclerosis model EAE. J Neuroimmunol. 2010; 229:180191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, RC, Morris, AP, O’Neil, RG. Tight junction protein expression and barrier properties of immortalized mouse brain microvessel endothelial cells. Brain Res. 2007; 1130:1730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed