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HIGH-SURFACE-AREA BIOCARBONS FOR REVERSIBLE ON-BOARD STORAGE OF NATURAL GAS AND HYDROGEN

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Peter Pfeifer
Affiliation:
pfeiferp@missouri.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, 223 Physics Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Jacob W. Burress
Affiliation:
JacobBurress@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Mikael B. Wood
Affiliation:
mbw3db@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Cintia M. Lapilli
Affiliation:
cmlapilli@hotmail.com, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Sarah A. Barker
Affiliation:
sab3h6@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Jeffrey S. Pobst
Affiliation:
jsp9k3@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Raina J. Cepel
Affiliation:
raina@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Carlos Wexler
Affiliation:
wexlerc@missouri.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Physics, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Parag S. Shah
Affiliation:
pss7rf@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Michael J. Gordon
Affiliation:
mjggx6@mizzou.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
Galen J. Suppes
Affiliation:
suppesg@missouri.edu, University of Missouri, Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia, MO, 65211, United States
S. Philip Buckley
Affiliation:
pbuckley@mriresearch.org, Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Blvd., Kansas City, MO, 64110, United States
Darren J. Radke
Affiliation:
dradke@mriresearch.org, Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Blvd., Kansas City, MO, 64110, United States
Jan Ilavsky
Affiliation:
ilavsky@aps.anl.gov, Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL, 60439, United States
Anne C. Dillon
Affiliation:
anne_dillon@nrel.gov, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO, 80401, United States
Philip A. Parilla
Affiliation:
philip_parilla@nrel.gov, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO, 80401, United States
Michael Benham
Affiliation:
mbenham@HidenIsochema.com, Hiden Isochema Ltd., 231 Europa Blvd., Warrington, WA5 7TN, United Kingdom
Michael W. Roth
Affiliation:
Michael.Roth@uni.edu, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Physics, Cedar Falls, IA, 50614, United States
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Abstract

An overview is given of the development of advanced nanoporous carbons as storage ma-terials for natural gas (methane) and molecular hydrogen in on-board fuel tanks for next-generation clean automobiles. The carbons are produced in a multi-step process from corncob, have surface areas of up to 3500 m2/g, porosities of up to 0.8, and reversibly store, by physisorp-tion, record amounts of methane and hydrogen. Current best gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are: 250 g CH4/kg carbon and 130 g CH4/liter carbon (199 V/V) at 35 bar and 293 K; and 80 g H2/kg carbon and 47 g H2/liter carbon at 47 bar and 77 K. This is the first time the DOE methane storage target of 180 V/V at 35 bar and ambient temperature has been reached and exceeded. The hydrogen values compare favorably with the 2010 DOE gravimetric and volu-metric targets for hydrogen. A prototype adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, loaded with carbon monoliths produced accordingly and currently undergoing a road test in Kansas City, is de-scribed. A preliminary analysis of the surface and pore structure is given that may shed light on the mechanisms leading to the extraordinary storage capacities of these materials. The analysis includes pore-size distributions from nitrogen adsorption isotherms; spatial organization of pores across the entire solid from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS); pore entrances from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); H2 binding energies from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD); and analysis of surface defects from Raman spectra. For future materials, expected to have higher H2 binding energies via appropriate sur-face functionalization, preliminary projections of H2 storage capacities based on molecular dy-namics simulations of adsorption of H2 on graphite, are reported.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2008

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HIGH-SURFACE-AREA BIOCARBONS FOR REVERSIBLE ON-BOARD STORAGE OF NATURAL GAS AND HYDROGEN
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