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Fluorescent Nanodiamond – A Novel Nanomaterial for In Vivo Applications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 July 2011

Nitin Mohan
Affiliation:
Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Bailin Zhang
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Cheng-Chun Chang
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Liling Yang
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Chao-Sheng Chen
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Chia-Yi Fang
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Hsiao-Han Hsieh
Affiliation:
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Chun-Yi Cho
Affiliation:
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Yi-Chun Wu
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Jui-Hsia Weng
Affiliation:
Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
Bon-chu Chung
Affiliation:
Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
Huan-Cheng Chang*
Affiliation:
Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
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Abstract

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) with a size in the range of 10 – 100 nm have been produced by ion irradiation and annealing, and isolated by differential centrifugation. Single particle spectroscopic characterization with confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicates that they are photostable and useful as an alternative to far-red fluorescent proteins for bioimaging applications. We demonstrate the application by performing in vivo imaging of bare and bioconjugated FND particles (100 nm in diameter) in C. elegans and zebrafishes and exploring the interactions between this novel nanomaterial and the model organisms. Our results indicate that FNDs can be delivered to the embryos of both organisms by microinjection and eventually into the hatched larvae in the next generation. No deleterious effects have been observed for the carbon-based nanoparticles in vivo. The high fluorescence brightness, excellent photostability, and nontoxic nature of the nanomaterial have allowed long-term imaging and tracking of embryogenesis in the organisms.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011

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Footnotes

These two authors contribute equally to this work.

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