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Efficient Stacked OLED processed by Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 May 2015

M. Brast
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
S. Axmann
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
M. Slawinski
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
M. Weingarten
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
F. Lindla
Affiliation:
Philips GmbH – Business Center OLED Lighting, Philipsstr. 8, 52068 Aachen, Germany
M. Bösing
Affiliation:
Philips GmbH – Business Center OLED Lighting, Philipsstr. 8, 52068 Aachen, Germany
M. Heuken
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany AIXTRON SE, Dornkaulstr. 2, 52134 Herzogenrath, Germany
A. Vescan
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
H. Kalisch
Affiliation:
Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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Abstract

The development of efficient large-area organic light emitting diodes (OLED) requires reliable and easily processable charge generation layers (CGL) with low excess voltage drop and high optical transparency. OVPD offers the advantage of a precise control of layer morphology, composition and thickness and is a powerful method for the deposition of advanced OLED designs. In this work, electrical doping of organic semiconductors using OVPD is investigated and applied to stacked OLED utilizing inorganic/organic CGL. The organic p-type dopant NDP-9 of Novaled GmbH is used for doping the hole transport material N,N‘-diphenyl-N,N‘-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1‘-biphenyl-4,4‘-diamine (α-NPD) in an AIXTRON OVPD tool. A doping concentration of 8 vol.% of NDP-9 in α-NPD is found optimal for hole injection as well as conductivity. This dopant concentration was employed in CGL with the structure: electron transport material/LiF/Al/α-NPD:8 vol.% NDP-9. External quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 15%, 35% and 50% and luminous efficiencies of 37 lm/W, 45 lm/W and 45 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2 are demonstrated for single, double- and triple-unit green phosphorescent OLED, respectively.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2015 

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Efficient Stacked OLED processed by Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD)
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