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Dispersions of Surface Modified Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles with Enhanced Kinetic Stability: Properties and Applications to Desalination and Consolidation of the Yungang Grottoes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 August 2014

Ya Xiao
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, China, 410083 Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, China, 410083
Feng Gao
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, China, 410083 Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage, Beijing 100029, China
Yun Fang
Affiliation:
China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan, 430074, China
Youdan Tan
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Kaiyu Liu
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Shaojun Liu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, China, 410083 School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
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Abstract

Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is one of the most interesting materials used to consolidate stone sculptures, monuments, mortars or wall paintings. In this study, we reported on the synthesis and characterization of surface modified Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles as a dispersion with enhanced kinetic stability and the applications for the conservation of sandstone monuments. Uniform hexagonal Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (∼35nm) were obtained by mixing NaOH and NaCl aqueous solutions at 100∼175oC using homogeneous-phase reactions. It was further demonstrated that 3-(Methacryloyloxypropane oxygen) trimethoxysilane surfactant agent can significantly reduce agglomeration and simultaneously improve specific surface area of as-synthesized Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement showed that specific surface area of modified Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles reaches up to ∼48.78m2/g, about 2.5 and 3.4 times higher than that of unmodified and commercial ones, respectively. The kinetic stability of Ca(OH)2 despersion can be further enhanced and its viscosity can be decreased by optimizing the ratio of ethanol and n-propanol. Especially, a technique, which combined the Ferroni-Dini method and dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles with enhanced kinetic stability, was proposed to effectively desalinate and consolidate the decayed stone, as evidenced by significant decreases of the porosity and concentration of detrimental Cl- and SO4 2- ions in the severely decayed sandstone samples from the Yungang grottoes.

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Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

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Dispersions of Surface Modified Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles with Enhanced Kinetic Stability: Properties and Applications to Desalination and Consolidation of the Yungang Grottoes
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