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Simulations of Nanometer-Thick Lubricating Films

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2013

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Hydrodynamics and elastohydrodynamics have been successful in describing lubrication by micron-thick films. However, these continuum theories begin to break down as film thicknesses become comparable to molecular dimensions. An increasing number of applications require an understanding of lubricants in such severely confined geometries. Examples include lubrication of nanoscale bearings in micromachinery or high-density magnetic disk drives, as well as asperity interactions in macroscopic bearings that operate in the mixed lubrication regime.

Development of new experimental and theoretical techniques for studying thin lubricant films has paralleled the growing interest in their properties. The surface force apparatus (SFA) allows normal and shear forces to be measured between atomically flat solid surfaces while their separation is determined to within 0.1 nm using interferometry or capacitance. The contact area in the SFA is typically 100 μm across, much larger than the separation between solid walls. The atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to explore friction in lubricated contacts whose diameter is comparable to the separation (5 nm). This allows spatial resolution of the frictional force on a molecular scale. Quartz-crystal oscillators have been used to determine the frictional forces between a surface and an adsorbed film of one or more monolayers. Theoretical advances have been aided by the advent of supercomputers that allow thin films to be simulated at the molecular level using molecular dynamics. These new experimental and theoretical techniques reveal a sequence of dramatic changes in the static and dynamic properties of fluid films as their thickness approaches molecular scales.

Type
Nanotribology
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1993

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