Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-m7vrx Total loading time: 0.37 Render date: 2022-12-09T17:40:21.127Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

Imperceptible organic electronics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 February 2017

Takao Someya
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan; and Thin-Film Device Laboratory & Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Japan;
Siegfried Bauer
Soft Matter Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Austria;
Martin Kaltenbrunner
Soft Matter Physics Department, Soft Electronics Laboratory, Johannes Kepler University, Austria;
Get access


A wide range of materials and material combinations, from hard and brittle to soft and elastic, is now available for the design of ultraflexible organic electronic circuits. Potential applications range from large-area active-matrix sensor arrays to displays, usable in next-generation smart appliances for mobile health, sports, and well-being. Weight and flexibility dominate the mechanical response and perception of such electronic skins, and have been developed into key figures of merit in circuit design. We review the design of thin (0.3–3 µm), ultralight (0.7–6 g/m2) large-area “imperceptible” electronic foils employing low-cost fabrication techniques compatible with mass production.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Wagner, S., Bauer, S., MRS Bull. 37 (3), 207 (2012).CrossRef
Kim, D.H., Lu, N., Ma, R., Kim, Y.S., Kim, R.H., Wang, S., Wu, J., Won, S.M., Tao, H., Islam, A., Yu, K.J., Science 333 (6044), 838 (2011).CrossRef
Hwang, S.W., Tao, H., Kim, D.H., Cheng, H., Song, J.K., Rill, E., Brenckle, M.A., Panilaitis, B., Won, S.M., Kim, Y.S., Song, Y.M., Science 337 (6102), 1640 (2012).CrossRef
Kaltenbrunner, M., Sekitani, T., Reeder, J., Yokota, T., Kuribara, K., Tokuhara, T., Drack, M., Schwödiauer, R., Graz, I., Bauer-Gogonea, S., Bauer, S., Nature 499 (7459), 458 (2013).CrossRef
Suo, Z., Ma, E.Y., Gleskova, H., Wagner, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (8), 1177 (1999).CrossRef
Weimer, P.K., Proc. IRE 50 (6), 1462 (1962).CrossRef
Brody, T.P., Page, D.J., Electronics 41, 100 (1968).
Brody, T.P., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31 (11), 1614 (1984).CrossRef
Ray, K.A., IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 3, 107 (1967).CrossRef
Ma, E.Y., Wagner, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2661 (1999).CrossRef
Sekitani, T., Iba, S., Kato, Y., Noguchi, Y., Someya, T., Sakurai, T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 (17), 173502 (2005).CrossRef
Kim, D.H., Ahn, J.H., Choi, W.M., Kim, H.S., Kim, T.H., Song, J., Huang, Y.Y., Liu, Z., Lu, C., Rogers, J.A., Science 320 (5875), 507 (2008).CrossRef
Sekitani, T., Zschieschang, U., Klauk, H., Someya, T., Nat. Mater. 9, 1015 (2010).CrossRef
Kaltenbrunner, M., White, M.S., Glowacki, E.D., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Sariciftci, N.S., Bauer, S., Nat. Commun. 3, 770 (2012).CrossRef
Drack, M., Graz, I., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Kaltenbrunner, M., Bauer, S., Adv. Mater. 27, 34 (2015).CrossRef
Khang, D.Y., Jiang, H.Q., Huang, Y., Rogers, J.A., Science 311, 208 (2006).CrossRef
Rogers, J.A., Lagally, M.G., Nuzzo, R.G., Nature 477, 45 (2011).CrossRef
Ko, H.C., Stoykovich, M.P., Song, J., Malyarchuk, V., Choi, W.M., Yu, C.-J., Geddes, J.B. III, Xiao, J., Wang, S., Huang, Y., Rogers, J.A., Nature 454, 748 (2008).CrossRef
Kim, D.-H., Ghaffari, R., Lu, N., Rogers, J.A., Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14, 113 (2012).CrossRef
Kim, D.-H., Lu, N., Huang, Y., Rogers, J.A., MRS Bull. 37, 226 (2012).CrossRef
Salvatore, G.A., Münzenrieder, N., Kinkeldei, T., Petti, L., Zysset, C., Strebel, I., Büthe, L., Tröster, G., Nat. Commun. 5, 2982 (2014).CrossRef
Münzenrieder, N., Cantarella, G., Vogt, C., Petti, L., Büthe, L., Salvatore, G.A., Fang, Y., Andri, R., Lam, Y., Libanori, R., Widner, D., Adv. Electron. Mater. 1 (3), 2199–160x (2015).CrossRef
Karnaushenko, D., Münzenrieder, N., Karnaushenko, D.D., Koch, B., Meyer, A.K., Baunack, S., Petti, L., Tröster, G., Makarov, D., Schmidt, O.G., Adv. Mater. 27 (43), 6797 (2015).CrossRef
Petti, L., Münzenrieder, N., Vogt, C., Faber, H., Büthe, L., Cantarella, G., Bottacchi, F., Anthopoulos, T.D., Tröster, G., Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 021303 (2016).CrossRef
Choi, M.K., Yang, J., Kang, K., Kim, D.C., Choi, C., Park, C., Kim, S.J., Chae, S.I., Kim, T.H., Kim, J.H., Hyeon, T., Nat. Commun. 6, 7149 (2015).CrossRef
Lee, H., Lee, Y., Song, C., Cho, H.R., Ghaffari, R., Choi, T.K., Kim, K.H., Lee, Y.B., Ling, D., Lee, H., Yu, S.J., Nat. Commun. 6, 10059 (2015).CrossRef
Kim, J., Son, D., Lee, M., Song, C., Song, J.K., Koo, J.H., Lee, D.J., Shim, H.J., Kim, J.H., Lee, M., Hyeon, T., Sci. Adv. 2 (1), e1501101 (2016).CrossRef
Lee, H., Choi, T.K., Lee, Y.B., Cho, H.R., Ghaffari, R., Wang, L., Choi, H.J., Chung, T.D., Lu, N., Hyeon, T., Choi, S.H., Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 566 (2016).CrossRef
Georgiou, T., Jalil, R., Belle, B.D., Britnell, L., Gorbachev, R.V., Morozov, S.V., Kim, Y.J., Gholinia, A., Haigh, S.J., Makarovsky, O., Eaves, L., Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 (2), 100 (2013).CrossRef
Rogers, J.A., Someya, T., Huang, Y., Science 327, 1603 (2010).CrossRef
Cerda, E., Mahadevan, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (7), 074302 (2003).CrossRef
Bowden, N., Brittain, S., Evans, A.G., Hutchinson, J.W., Whitesides, G.M., Nature 393 (6681), 146 (1998).
Lacour, S.P., Wagner, S., Huang, Z.Y., Suo, Z., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2404 (2003).CrossRef
Zang, J., Ryu, S., Pugno, N., Wang, Q., Tu, Q., Buehler, M.J., Zhao, X., Nat. Mater. 12 (4), 321 (2013).CrossRef
Cao, C., Chan, H.F., Zang, J., Leong, K.W., Zhao, X., Adv. Mater. 26 (11), 1763 (2014).CrossRef
Hammock, M.L., Chortos, A., Tee, B.C.K., Tok, J.B.H., Bao, Z., Adv. Mater. 25, 5997 (2013).CrossRef
Bauer, S., Bauer-Gogonea, S., Graz, I., Kaltenbrunner, M., Keplinger, C., Schwödiauer, R., Adv. Mater. 26, 149 (2014).CrossRef
Kaltenbrunner, M., Adam, G., Głowacki, E.D., Drack, M., Schwödiauer, R., Leonat, L., Apaydin, D.H., Groiss, H., Scharber, M.C., Schuette White, M., Sariciftci, N.S., Bauer, S., Nat. Mater. 14, 1032 (2015).CrossRef
White, M.S., Kaltenbrunner, M., Głowacki, E.D., Gutnichenko, K., Kettlgruber, G., Graz, I., Aazou, S., Ulbricht, C., Egbe, D.A.M., Miron, M.C., Major, Z., Scharber, M.C., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Bauer, S., Sariciftci, N.S., Nat. Photonics 7, 811 (2013).CrossRef
Melzer, M., Kaltenbrunner, M., Makarov, D., Karnaushenko, D., Karnaushenko, D., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Schmidt, O.G., Nat. Commun. 6, 6080 (2015).CrossRef
Melzer, M., Mönch, J.I., Makarov, D., Zabila, Y., Bermúdez, G.S.C., Karnaushenko, D., Baunack, S., Bahr, F., Yan, C., Kaltenbrunner, M., Schmidt, O.G., Adv. Mater. 27, 1274 (2014).CrossRef
Münzenrieder, N., Karnaushenko, D., Petti, L., Cantarella, G., Vogt, C., Büthe, L., Karnaushenko, D.D., Schmidt, O.G., Makarov, D., Tröster, G., Adv. Electron. Mater. 2 (8), (2016).
Makarov, D., Melzer, M., Karnaushenko, D., Schmidt, O.G., Appl. Phys. Rev. 3 (1), 011101 (2016).CrossRef
Moser, R., Kettlgruber, G., Siket, C.M., Drack, M., Graz, I.M., Cakmak, U., Major, Z., Kaltenbrunner, M., Bauer, S., Adv. Sci. 3, 1500396 (2016).CrossRef
Ware, T., Simon, D., Arreaga-Salas, D.E., Reeder, J., Rennaker, R., Keefer, E.W., Voit, W., Adv. Funct. Mater. 22 (16), 3470 (2012).CrossRef
Reeder, J., Kaltenbrunner, M., Ware, T., Arreaga-Salas, D., Avendano-Bolivar, A., Yokota, T., Inoue, Y., Sekino, M., Voit, W., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Adv. Mater. 26, 4967 (2014).CrossRef
Chortos, A., Liu, J., Bao, Z., Nat. Mater. 15, 937 (2016).CrossRef
Liu, J., Fu, T.M., Cheng, Z., Hong, G., Zhou, T., Jin, L., Duvvuri, M., Jiang, Z., Kruskal, P., Xie, C., Suo, Z., Fang, J., Lieber, C.M., Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 629 (2015).CrossRef
Minev, I.R., Musienko, P., Hirsch, A., Barraud, Q., Wenger, N., Moraud, E.M., Gandar, J., Capogrosso, M., Milekovic, T., Asboth, L., Torres, R.F., Vachicouras, N., Liu, Q., Pavlova, N., Duis, S., Larmagnac, A., Vörös, J., Micera, S., Suo, Z., Courtine, G., Lacour, S.P., Science 347, 159 (2015).CrossRef
Tee, B.C.K., Chortos, A., Berndt, A., Nguyen, A.K., Tom, A., McGuire, A., Lin, Z.C., Tien, K., Bae, W.-G., Wang, H., Mei, P., Chou, H.-H., Cui, B., Deisseroth, K., Ng, T.N., Bao, Z., Science 350, 313 (2015).CrossRef
Jeong, J.W., McCall, J.G., Shin, G., Zhang, Y., Al-Hasani, R., Kim, M., Li, S., Sim, J.Y., Jang, K.I., Shi, Y., Hong, D.Y., Liu, Y., Schmitz, G.P., Xia, L., He, Z., Gamble, P., Ray, W.Z., Huang, Y., Bruchas, M.R., Rogers, J.A., Cell 162, 662 (2015).CrossRef
Park, S.I., Brenner, D.S., Shin, G., Morgan, C.D., Copits, B.A., Chung, H.U., Pullen, M.Y., Noh, K.N., Davidson, S., Oh, S.J., Yoon, J., Jang, K.-I., Samineni, V.K., Norman, M., Grajales-Reyes, J.G., Vogt, S.K., Sundaram, S.S., Wilson, K.M., Ha, J.S., Xu, R., Pan, T., Kim, T., Huang, Y., Montana, M.C., Golden, J.P., Bruchas, M.R., Gereau, R.W., Rogers, J.A., Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 1280 (2015).CrossRef
Khodagholy, D., Doublet, T., Quilichini, P., Gurfinkel, M., Leleux, P., Ghestem, A., Ismailova, E., Hervé, T., Sanaur, S., Bernard, C., Malliaras, G.G., Nat. Commun. 4, 1575 (2013).CrossRef
Schwartz, G., Tee, B.C.-K., Mei, J., Appleton, A.L., Kim, D.H., Wang, H., Bao, Z., Nat. Commun. 4, 1859 (2013).CrossRef
Yokota, T., Inoue, Y., Terakawa, Y., Reeder, J., Kaltenbrunner, M., Ware, T., Yang, K., Mabuchi, K., Murakawa, T., Sekino, M., Voit, W., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112 (47), 14533 (2015).CrossRef
Lee, S., Reuveny, A., Reeder, J., Lee, S., Jin, H., Liu, Q., Yokota, T., Sekitani, T., Isoyama, T., Abe, Y., Suo, Z., Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 472 (2016).CrossRef
Yokota, T., Zalar, P., Kaltenbrunner, M., Jinno, H., Matsuhisa, N., Kitanosako, H., Tachibana, Y., Yukita, W., Koizumi, M., Someya, T., Sci. Adv. 2 (4), e1501856 (2016).CrossRef
Reuveny, A., Lee, S., Yokota, T., Fuketa, H., Siket, C.M., Lee, S., Sekitani, T., Sakurai, T., Bauer, S., Someya, T., Adv. Mater. 28, 3298 (2016).CrossRef
Lee, W., Kim, D., Rivnay, J., Matsuhisa, N., Lonjaret, T., Yokota, T., Yawo, H., Sekino, M., Malliaras, G.G., Someya, T., Adv. Mater. 28, 9869 (2016).CrossRefPubMed
Sekitani, T., Yokota, T., Kuribara, K., Kaltenbrunner, M., Fukushima, T., Inoue, Y., Sekino, M., Isoyama, T., Abe, Y., Onodera, H., Someya, T., Nat. Commun. 7 (2016).CrossRef
Lee, S., Inoue, Y., Kim, D., Reuveny, A., Kuribara, K., Yokota, T., Reeder, J., Sekino, M., Sekitani, T., Abe, Y., Someya, T., Nat. Commun. 5, 5898 (2014).CrossRef
Reuveny, A., Yokota, T., Shidachi, R., Sekitani, T., Someya, T., Org. Electron. 26, 279 (2015).CrossRef
Nawrocki, R.A., Matsuhisa, N., Yokota, T., Someya, T., Adv. Electron. Mater. 2, 1500452 (2016).CrossRef
Ko, S.H., Pan, H., Grigoropoulos, C.P., Fréchet, J.M., Luscombe, C.K., Poulikakos, D., Appl. Phys. A 92 (3), 579 (2008).CrossRef
Benight, S.J., Wang, C., Tok, J.B.H., Bao, Z., Prog. Polym. Sci. 38, 1961 (2013).CrossRef
Printz, A.D., Lipomi, D.J., Appl. Phys. Rev. 3 (2), 021302 (2016).CrossRef
Cherenack, K., van Pieterson, L., J. Appl. Phys. 112, 091301 (2012).CrossRef
Chortos, A., Bao, Z., Mater. Today 17, 321 (2014).CrossRef
Takeda, Y., Yoshimura, Y., Shiwaku, R., Tran, L.T., Sekine, T., Mizukami, M., Kumaki, D., Tokito, S., Fukuda, K., Nat. Commun. 5, 1 (2014).CrossRef
Khodagholy, D., Rivnay, J., Sessolo, M., Gurfinkel, M., Leleux, P., Jimison, L.H., Stavrinidou, E., Herve, T., Sanaur, S., Owens, R.M., Malliaras, G.G., Nat. Commun. 4, 2133 (2013).
Khodagholy, D., Gelinas, J.N., Thesen, T., Doyle, W., Devinsky, O., Malliaras, G.G., Buzsáki, G., Nat. Neurosci. 18, 310 (2014).CrossRef
Cao, X., Cao, Y., Zhou, C., ACS Nano 10, 199 (2016).CrossRef
Yi, H.T., Payne, M.M., Anthony, J.E., Podzorov, V., Nat. Commun. 3, 1259 (2012).CrossRef
Sun, J.Y., Zhao, X., Illeperuma, W.R.K., Chaudhuri, O., Oh, K.H., Mooney, D.J., Vlassak, J.J., Suo, Z., Nature 489, 133 (2012).CrossRef
Keplinger, C., Sun, J.Y., Foo, C.C., Rothemund, P., Whitesides, G.M., Suo, Z., Science 341, 984 (2013).CrossRef
Lin, S., Yuk, H., Zhang, T., Parada, G.A., Koo, H., Yu, C., Zhao, X., Adv. Mater. 28, 4497 (2016).CrossRef

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Imperceptible organic electronics
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Imperceptible organic electronics
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Imperceptible organic electronics
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *