Tissue engineering scaffolding is the external media or structure in which cell growth, migration and reproduction is enabled in order to stimulate tissue regeneration. In order to promote tissue regeneration, scaffolding materials are required to have certain properties such as biocompatibility, adequate mechanical properties and surface topographical features in order to provide specific biological signals to promote cell attachment and proliferation .
Cellulose is the most abundant, inexpensive and readily available carbohydrate polymer in the world and it is traditionally extracted from plants or their wastes . Although the plant itself is the major contributor of cellulose, various types of bacteria are able to produce cellulose and it is termed bacterial cellulose . Bacterial cellulose is a well suited scaffold for tissue regeneration due to its biocompatibility, mechanical properties and its ability to be combined with other structures such calcium phosphates , which can create composites with intrinsic properties that meet the requirements of the different tissues of the human body .
Through additive manufacturing, highly complex structures can be created which are similar to those found in nature. This work will explore the different ways to produce biomimetic structures for tissue engineering applications through the combination of bacterial cellulose and additive manufacturing producing complex structures of a highly a biocompatible material for a range of different biomedical applications . In addition to the manufacturing and processing techniques, the use of mango (juice/peel) as a complex carbon source for the production of bacterial cellulose was investigated.