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Thin Film Characterization on Cu/SnAg Solder Interface for 3D Packaging Technologies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2020

Kimberly Beers
Affiliation:
University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Gainesville, FL32611 Sandia National Labs, Microsystems Integration, Albuquerque, NM87123
Andrew E. Hollowell
Affiliation:
Sandia National Labs, Microsystems Integration, Albuquerque, NM87123
G. Bahar Basim
Affiliation:
University of Florida, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Gainesville, FL32611
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Abstract

Copper is a commonly used interconnect metal in microelectronic interconnects due to its exceptional electrical and thermal properties. Particularly in applications of the 2.5 and 3D integration, Cu is utilized in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and flip chip interconnects between microelectronic chips for providing miniaturization, lower power and higher performance than current 2D packaging approaches. SnAg capped Cu pillars are a common high-density interconnect technology for flip chip bonding. For these interconnects, specific properties of the Cu surface, such as roughness and cleanliness, are an important factor in the process to ensure quality solder bumps. During electroplating, tight processing parameters must be met so that defects are avoided, and high bump uniformity is achieved. An understanding of the interactions at the solder and Cu pillar interface is needed, based on the electroplating parameters, to determine the best method for populating solder on the wafer surface. In this study, surface treatment techniques such as oxygen plasma cleaning were performed on the Cu surfaces and the SnAg plating chemistry for depositing the solder were evaluated through hull cell testing to qualitatively determine the range of current densities to investigate. It was observed that current density while plating played a large role in solder bump deposition morphology. At the higher current densities greater than 60 mA/cm2, bump height non-uniformity and dendritic growth are observed and at lower current densities, less than or equal to 60 mA/cm2, uniform, continuous bump height occurred.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2020

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