Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-cnwzk Total loading time: 0.185 Render date: 2021-07-30T15:11:08.119Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Measuring Surface Energies of GaAs (100) and Si (100) by Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) for Heterogeneous Nano-BondingTM

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2018

Christian E. Cornejo
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ Arizona State University School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Tempe, AZ
Michelle E. Bertram
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ Arizona State University School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Tempe, AZ
Timoteo C. Diaz
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ Arizona State University School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Tempe, AZ
Saaketh R. Narayan
Affiliation:
Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Sukesh Ram
Affiliation:
Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Karen L. Kavanagh
Affiliation:
Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 Canada
Nicole Herbots
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Jack M. Day
Affiliation:
Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Franscesca J. Ark
Affiliation:
Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Ajit Dhamdhere
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ
Robert J. Culbertson
Affiliation:
Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Rafiqul Islam
Affiliation:
Cactus Materials Inc., Tempe, AZ Arizona State University Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

Analysis of the total surface energy γT and its three components as established by the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good Theory (vOCG) is conducted via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA). γT is correlated with the composition of the top monolayers (ML) obtained from High-Resolution Ion Beam Analysis (HR-IBA). Control of γT enables surface engineering for wafer bonding (Nano-BondingTM) and/or epitaxial growth. Native oxides on boron-doped p-Si(100) are found to average γT of 53 ± 1.4 mJ/m2) and are always hydrophilic. An HF in methanol or aqueous HF etch for 60 s always renders Si(100) hydrophobic. Its γT decreases by 20% to 44 ± 3 mJ/m2 in HF in methanol etch and by 10% to 48 ± 3 mJ/m2 in aqueous HF. On the contrary, GaAs(100) native oxides are found to always be hydrophobic. Tellurium n+-doped GaAs(100) yields an average of γT of 37 ± 2 mJ/m2, 96% of which is due to the Lifshitz-Van der Waals molecular interactions (γLW = 36 ± 1 mJ/m2). However, hydrophobic GaAs(100) can be made highly hydrophilic. After etching, γT increases by almost 50% to 66 ± 1.4 mJ/m2. 3LCAA shows that the γT increase is due to electron acceptor and donor interactions, while the Lifshitz-van der Waals energy γLW remains constant. IBA combining the 3.039 ± 0.01 MeV oxygen nuclear resonance with <111> channeling, shows that oxygen on Si(100) decreases by 10% after aqueous HF etching, from 13.3 ± 0.3 monolayers (ML) to 11.8 ± 0.4 ML 1 hour after etch.Te-doped GaAs(100) exhibits consistent oxygen coverage of 7.2 ± 1.4 ML, decreasing by 50% after etching to a highly hydrophilic surface with 3.6 ± 0.2 oxygen ML. IBA shows that etching does not modify the GaAs surface stoichiometry to within 1% . Combining 3LCAA with HR-IBA provides a quantitative metrology to measure how GaAs and Si surfaces can be altered to a different hydroaffinity and surface termination.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Kaur, G., Dwivedi, N., Zheng, X., Liao, B., Peng, L. Z., Danner, A., Stangl, R., and Bhatia, C. S., IEEE J. Photovolt. 7, 1224 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peng, W., Rupich, S. M., Shafiq, N., Gartstein, Y. N., Malko, A. V., and Chabal, Y. J., Chem. Rev. 115, 12764 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller, D. A., Sorsch, T., Moccio, S., Baumann, F. H., Evans-Lutterodt, K., and Timp, G., Nature 399, 758 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kern, W. and Puotinen, D. A., RCA Rev. 31, 187 (1970).Google Scholar
Yablonovitch, E., Allara, D., Chang, C. C., Gmitter, T., and Bright, T. B., Phys. Rev. Letts. 57, 249 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higashi, G. S., Becker, R. S., Chabal, Y. J., and Becker, A. J., Appl. Phys. Letts. 58, 1656 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbots, N., Shaw, J., Hurst, Q., Grams, M., Culbertson, R., Smith, D. J., Atluri, V., Zimmerman, P., and Queeney, K., Matls. Sci. Eng. B 87, 303 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royea, W. J., Juang, A., and Lewis, N. S., Appl. Phys. Letts. 77, 1988 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peng, W., DeBenedetti, W. J. I., Kim, S., Hines, M. A., and Chabal, Y. J., 104, 241601 (2014).Google Scholar
Resch-Esser, U., J. of Vac. Sci. & Technol. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena 13, 1672 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Resch, U., Esser, N., Raptis, Y., Richter, W., Wasserfall, J., Förster, A., and Westwood, D., Surf. Sci. 269-270, 797 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tong, Q.-Y. and Gösele, U., Semiconductor Wafer Bonding (John Wiley, 1999, 1999).Google Scholar
Brillson, L. J., Surfaces and Interfaces of Electronic Materials (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Oss, C. J., Chaudhury, M. K., and Good, R. J., Chem. Rev. 88, 927 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Code Available upon request by contacting the authors at .Google Scholar
Mayer, M., Amer. Inst. Phys. Conf. Proceedings 475, p. 541 (1999).Google Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Culbertson, Robert. J., Bradley, James D., Hart, Murdock A., Sell, David A., Whaley, Shawn D., US Patent N° 9,018,077 (28 April 2015)Google Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Whaley, Shawn D., Culbertson, Robert J., Bennett-Kennett, Ross, Murphy, Ashlee M, Bade, Matthew T., Farmer, Sam, Watson, Clarizza F., Acharya, Ajjiya, US Patent N° 9,589,801 (7 March 2017)Google Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Bradley, James, Shaw, Justin Maurice, Culbertson, Robert J., Vasudeva Atluri US Patent N° 7,851,365 (14 December 14, 2010)Google Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Islam, Rafiqul, US Patents pending (2018), filed March 18, 2018Google Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Islam, Rafiqul, US Patents pending (2018), filed March 18, 2018Google Scholar
Bennett-Kennett, R., Wet : Catalyzing Molecular Cross-Bridges and Interphases Between Nanoscopically Smoothed Si-Based Surfaces And Tailoring Surface Energy Components, Senior Thesis, Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics (2013)Google Scholar
Davis, E. W., Wet NanobondingTM Of Semiconducting Surfaces Optimized Via Surface Energy Modification Using Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis as A Metrology, Senior Thesis Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics (2016)Google Scholar
Narayan, S., Day, J., Thinakaran, H., Herbots, N., Bertram, M., Cornejo, C., Diaz, T., Kavanagh, K., Culbertson, R. J., Ark, F., Ram, S., Mangus, M., Islam, R., This Conference, submitted to MRS Advances (2018)Google Scholar
Good, R. J; van Oss, C. J., The Modern Theory of Contact Angles and the Hydrogen bond Components of Surface Energies, In: Loeb, G. I.; Schrader, M.E. (Hrg.): Modern approaches to wettability. 1992, P. 127.Google Scholar
van Oss, C. J.; Chaudhury, M. K.; Good, R. J., J. Chem. Rev. 88 (1988), P. 927941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rieke, P. C., Journal of Crystal Growth. 182, p. 472484 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faibish, R. S., Colloid, J. and Interface Sci., 256m 341350Google Scholar
Carre, A., J. Adhesion Sci. Technol., 21 (10), 961981 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbots, N., Xing, Q., Hart, M., Bradley, J. D., Sell, D. A., Culbertson, R. J., & ,Wilkens, B. J. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Physics Research, Section B: 272, 330333 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbots, Nicole, Atluri, Vasudeva P., Bradley, James D., Swati, Banerjee, Hurst, Quinton B., Xiang, Jiong, US Patent N° 6613677 (2 September 2003)Google Scholar
Shaw, Justin M., Herbots, N., Hurst, Q. B., Bradley, D., Culbertson, R. J., Atluri, V., and Queeney, K. T., Journal of Applied Physics 100, 104109 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Atluri, Vasudeva, Herbots, Nicole, Dagel, Daryl, Baghvat, Shantanu, and Whaley, Shawn Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res., Section B 118(s 1–4):144150 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, Brian, Lee, Wey-Liyn, Kintz, Jacob, Yano, Aliya, Narayan, Saaketh, Day, Jack, Herbots, Nicole, Akaname, Yuko, Islam, Rafiqul, abstract accepted to the 65th Annual Fall Meeting of the American Vaccuum Society, Long Beach, CA, October 21-26 2018, manuscript to be submitted to the J. of Vac. Sci. & Technol. (2018)Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Measuring Surface Energies of GaAs (100) and Si (100) by Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) for Heterogeneous Nano-BondingTM
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Measuring Surface Energies of GaAs (100) and Si (100) by Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) for Heterogeneous Nano-BondingTM
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Measuring Surface Energies of GaAs (100) and Si (100) by Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) for Heterogeneous Nano-BondingTM
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *