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Comparative Study of Surface Energies of Native Oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2018

Saaketh R. Narayan
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Jack M. Day
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Harshini L. Thinakaran
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Nicole Herbots
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics Cactus Materials, Inc.
Michelle E. Bertram
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics Cactus Materials, Inc.
Christian E. Cornejo
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics Cactus Materials, Inc.
Timoteo C. Diaz
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics Cactus Materials, Inc.
Karen L. Kavanagh
Affiliation:
Simon Fraser University, Vancouver
R. J. Culbertson
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Franscesca J. Ark
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Sukesh Ram
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics
Mark W. Mangus
Affiliation:
LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Physics, ASU
Rafiqul Islam
Affiliation:
Arizona State University, Dept. of Physics Cactus Materials, Inc.
Corresponding
E-mail address:
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Abstract

The effects of crystal orientation and doping on the surface energy, γT, of native oxides of Si(100) and Si(111) are measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA) to extract γT, while Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to detect Oxygen. During 3LCAA, contact angles for three liquids are measured with photographs via the “Drop and Reflection Operative Program (DROP™). DROP™ removes subjectivity in image analysis, and yields reproducible contact angles within < ±1°. Unlike to the Sessile Drop Method, DROP can yield relative errors < 3% on sets of 20-30 drops. Native oxides on 5 x 1013 B/cm3 p- doped Si(100) wafers, as received in sealed, 25 wafer teflon boats continuously stored in Class 100/ISO 5 conditions at 24.5°C in 25% controlled humidity, are found to be hydrophilic. Their γT, 52.5 ± 1.5 mJ/m2, is reproducible between four boats from three sources, and 9% greater than γT of native oxides on n- doped Si(111), which averages 48.1 ± 1.6 mJ/m2 on four 4” Si(111) wafers. IBA combining 16O nuclear resonance with channeling detects 30% more oxygen on native oxides of Si(111) than Si(100). While γT should increase on thinner, more defective oxides, Lifshitz-Van der Waals interactions γLW on native oxides of Si(100) remain at 36 ± 0.4 mJ/m2, equal to γLW on Si(111), 36 ± 0.6 mJ/m2, since γLW arises from the same SiO2 molecules. Native oxides on 4.5 x 1018 B/cm3 p+ doped Si(100) yield a γT of 39 ± 1 mJ/m2, as they are thicker per IBA. In summary, 3LCAA and IBA can detect reproducibly and accurately, within a few %, changes in the surface energy of native oxides due to thickness and surface composition arising from doping or crystal structure, if conducted in well controlled clean room conditions for measurements and storage.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

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