Published online by Cambridge University Press: 06 May 2021
From the lens of two Macanese publics, this study rethinks cosmopolitanism as a diverse identity and pursuit that can vary from one individual to another. It complicates what we know about polyglot Asian publics often profiled as ‘cosmopolitan’ for their foreign education, middle-class status, social commitment, and internationalist visions. I argue that, while these subjects shared a common background, they diverged according to shifting global contexts, generational differences, and personal experience. On a par with imagining themselves as part of a global community, cosmopolitan publics navigated between personal worlds and communal networks, as well as between a narrower nationalist and/or urban context and a broader global framework. My first subject, Macao-born Lourenço Pereira Marques, saw Hong Kong as a liberal ground to disseminate Darwinism across southern China's Lusophone public sphere during the 1880s, whereas Hong Kong-born José Pedro Braga worked to preach an internationalist vision of racial equality through a wider Anglophone public sphere and an emerging transnational associational culture in the early twentieth century. This study also aims to further our understanding regarding Hong Kong as a vibrant port city and explore the diversity of cosmopolitan publics in the context of transitioning internal and external worlds.
I would like to thank Robert Bickers and Su Lin Lewis for the ideas that inspired the writing and completion of this paper.
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2 In this study, ‘Macanese’ (in Portuguese, Macaense) is an umbrella term to identify Southern China's Luso-Asian community who were either born in Macao or had ancestral roots in the Portuguese colony. The Macanese have deeper roots in Portuguese outposts in Southeast Asia and were known for adopting a mix of Southeast Asian, Portuguese, and Chinese cultural practices, as well as speaking Patuá, a Portuguese-based creole language that borrows from Malay, Cantonese, and Sinhalese. For studies regarding the background of the Macanese, see Deng Siping 鄧思平, Aomen tusheng Puren 澳門土生葡人 (Macaenses; Xianggang: Sanlian shudian youxian gongsi, 2009); Ana Maria Amaro 安娜·瑪里亞·阿馬羅, Dadi zhizi: Aomen tusheng Puren yanjiu大地之子──澳門土生葡人研究 (Filhos da Terra: Sons of the Land), (trans) Jin Guoping 金國平 (Aomen: Aomen wenhua sishu, 1993).
3 In this study, I use Su Lin Lewis's idea of ‘cosmopolitanism’ as, quoting, ‘a sense of “double consciousness” of global processes and local pluralism, as well as a commitment to social change’. This commitment could be realized through civic participation, philanthropy, social reform, or participation in public spheres and the production of hybrid cultural forms. For this, see Lewis, Su Lin, Cities in Motion: Urban Life and Cosmopolitanism in Southeast Asia, 1920–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), p. 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
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22 One of these visits was recorded by Hunan scholar Wei Yuan, who wrote a poem documenting a piano performance from one of Comendador Marques's daughter, entitled Aomen huayuan ting yinü yangqin ge 澳門花園聽夷女洋琴歌 [Listening to a Foreign Girl Play Piano in the Macau Garden]. For this, see Wei Yuan 魏源, Wei Yuan ji [魏源集; A Collection of Wei Yuan], vol. 2 (Beijing: Chungwah, 1976), pp. 739–740.
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26 In his works, Marques also quoted French, Spanish, German, and English references without Portuguese translation.
27 Club Lusitano, Memoria dos festejos celebrados em Hongkong por occasião do tricentenario do principe dos poetas Portuguezes Luiz de Camões [Memorial of the Festivities Celebrated in Hong Kong on the Occasion of the Tercentenary of the Prince of Portuguese poet Luiz de Camões] (Hong Kong: Na Typographia de De Souza e Ca., 1880), pp. 83–85.
28 Catholic Register, 14 September 1880; Catholic Register, 16 September 1880.
29 The Compiler of the Memoir of the Tricentenary of Camoens, ‘To the editor of the “China Mail”’, The China Mail, 13 September 1880, p. 3.
30 António Joaquim Bastos, A inépcia em acção ou uma página para a história dos festejos promovidos em Hongkong pela Comissão do Tricentenário de Camões [The Ineptitude of an Action or a Page in the History of the Festivities Promoted in Hong Kong by the Commission of the Tercentenary of Camões] (Macau: Tip. Mercantil, 1880).
31 António Maria Augusto de Vasconcellos, Sermão pregado na Sé Catedral de Macau na primeira dominga de Quaresma em 6 de Março de 1881, no qual se refutam alguns pontos do sistema darwiniano com referência ao homem e à religião católica [Sermon preached at the cathedral of Macau on the first Sunday of Lent on March 6, 1881, which refutes some points of the Darwinian system with reference to man and the Catholic Religion] (Macau: Typographia Mercantil, 1881).
32 Policarpo da Costa, Análise do Sermão pregado pelo Reverendíssimo Senhor António Maria Augusto de Vasconcelos, bacharel formado em Teologia pela Universidade de Coimbra, na Sé Catedral de Macau em 6 de Março de 1881», Hongkong, 1881 [Analysis of the sermon preached by Reverend Mr António Maria Augusto de Vasconcelos, bachelor degree in Theology from the University of Coimbra, etc. in the cathedral of Macau, on March 6, 1881] (Hong Kong: Typographia de Noronha & Ca., 1881); Morais, ‘Darwinism, Freemasonry’, p. 63.
33 Lourenço Pereira Marques, Defeza do Darwinismo: refutação d'um artigo do Jornal ‘Catholic Register’ [Defence of Darwinism: Refutation of a Journal Article of ‘Catholic Register’] (Hong Kong: Typographia de Noronha, 1889), p. 1; Lourenço Pereira Marques, A validade do Darwinismo [The Validity of Darwinism] (Hong Kong: International Printing Press, 1882), p. 5.
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44 ‘Jack Braga to Austin Coates’, 18 November 1969, MS 4300/3.8/1, J.M. Braga Papers, National Library of Australia, Canberra; Coates, Austin, Rizal, Philippine Nationalist and Martyr (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1968), pp. 213, 216Google Scholar. For Rizal's involvement with Freemasonry, see Fajardo, Reynaldo S., Dimasalang: the Masonic life of Dr. Jose Rizal (Pangasinan: CMN Printing Co., Inc., 1999)Google Scholar.
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88 ‘Racial disabilities and the Peak reservation’.
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