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High-resolution imaging of biotite using focal series exit wavefunction restoration and the graphene mechanical exfoliation method

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

W. Bower
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
W. Head
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
G. T. R. Droop
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
R. Zan
Affiliation:
School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
R. A. D. Pattrick
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
P. Wincott
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
S. J. Haigh
Affiliation:
School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Corresponding
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Abstract

We have applied mechanical exfoliation for the preparation of ultra-thin samples of the phyllosilicate mineral biotite. We demonstrate that the 'scotch tape' approach, which was made famous as an early method for production of single-atom-thick graphene, can be used for production of sheet-silicate specimens that are sufficiently thin to allow high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) imaging to be achieved successfully while also being free from the specimen preparation artefacts that are often caused by ion-beam milling techniques. Exfoliation of the biotite parallel to the (001) planes has produced layers as thin as two structural TOT units thick (∼2 nm). The minimal specimen thickness enabled not only HRTEM imaging but also the application of subsequent exit wavefunction restoration to reveal the pristine biotite lattice. Exit wavefunction restoration recovers the full complex electron wave from a focal series of HRTEM images, removing the effects of coherent lens aberrations. This combination of methods therefore produces images in which the observed features are readily interpreted to obtain atomic resolution structural information.

Type
Research Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2015 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2015

Footnotes

Present address: Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nig˘de University, 51000 Nig˘de, Turkey

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High-resolution imaging of biotite using focal series exit wavefunction restoration and the graphene mechanical exfoliation method
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