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Simultaneous Quantification of Indium and Nitrogen Concentration in InGaNAs Using HAADF-STEM

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 September 2014

Tim Grieb*
Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Knut Müller
Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Emmanuel Cadel
Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM) UMR 6634, Normandie Université, Université et INSA de RouenCNRS, Av. de l’Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, France
Andreas Beyer
Materials Science Center and Faculty of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Hans Meerwein Straße, 35032 Marburg, Germany
Marco Schowalter
Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Etienne Talbot
Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM) UMR 6634, Normandie Université, Université et INSA de RouenCNRS, Av. de l’Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, France
Kerstin Volz
Materials Science Center and Faculty of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Hans Meerwein Straße, 35032 Marburg, Germany
Andreas Rosenauer
Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*Corresponding author.
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To unambiguously evaluate the indium and nitrogen concentrations in InxGa1−xNyAs1−y, two independent sources of information must be obtained experimentally. Based on high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images taken with a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector the strain state of the InGaNAs quantum well is determined as well as its characteristic HAADF-scattering intensity. The strain state is evaluated by applying elasticity theory and the HAADF intensity is used for a comparison with multislice simulations. The combination of both allows for determination of the chemical composition where the results are in accordance with X-ray diffraction measurements, three-dimensional atom probe tomography, and further transmission electron microscopy analysis. The HAADF-STEM evaluation was used to investigate the influence of As-stabilized annealing on the InGaNAs/GaAs sample. Photoluminescence measurements show an annealing-induced blue shift of the emission wavelength. The chemical analysis precludes an elemental diffusion as origin of the energy shift—instead the results are in agreement with a model based on an annealing-induced redistribution of the atomic next-neighbor configuration.

Materials Applications
© Microscopy Society of America 2014 

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