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Micro-Topography and Reactivity of Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Study in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2015

M.G. Gandolfi*
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna - Via San Vitale 59 - 40126, Bologna, Italy
P. Taddei
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna - Via San Vitale 59 - 40126, Bologna, Italy
F. Siboni
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna - Via San Vitale 59 - 40126, Bologna, Italy
V. Perrotti
Affiliation:
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara - Via dei Vestini 1 - 66100, Chieti, Italy
G. Iezzi
Affiliation:
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara - Via dei Vestini 1 - 66100, Chieti, Italy
A. Piattelli
Affiliation:
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara - Via dei Vestini 1 - 66100, Chieti, Italy
C. Prati
Affiliation:
Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna - Via San Vitale 59 - 40126, Bologna, Italy
*
*Corresponding author. mgiovanna.gandolfi@unibo.it

Abstract

The creation of micro-textured dental implant surfaces possessing a stimulating activity represents a challenge in implant dentistry; particularly, the formation of a thin, biologically active, calcium-phosphate layer on their surface could help to strengthen the bond to the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to characterize in terms of macrostructure, micro-topography and reactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), the surface of titanium (Ti) implants blasted with TiO2 particles, acid etched with hydrofluoric acid, and activated with Ca and Mg-containing nanoparticles. Sandblasted and acid-etched implants were analyzed by ESEM-EDX (environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray system) to study the micromorphology of the surface and to perform elemental X-ray microanalysis (microchemical analyses) and element mapping. ESEM-EDX analyses were performed at time 0 and after a 28-day soaking period in SBF Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) following ISO 23317 (implants for surgery—in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of implant materials). Microchemical analyses (weight % and atomic %) and element mapping were carried out to evaluate the relative element content, element distribution, and calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) atomic ratio. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the possible presence of impurities due to manufacturing and to investigate the phases formed upon HBSS soaking. Micro-morphological analyses showed a micro-textured, highly rough surface with microgrooves. Microchemical analyses showed compositional differences among the apical, middle, and distal thirds. The micro-Raman analyses of the as-received implant showed the presence of amorphous Ti oxide and traces of anatase, calcite, and a carbonaceous material derived from the decomposition of an organic component of lipidic nature (presumably used as lubricant). A uniform layer of Ca-poor calcium phosphates (CaPs) (Ca/P ratio <1.47) was observed after soaking in HBSS; the detection of the 961 cm−1 Raman band confirms this finding. These implants showed a micro-textured surface supporting the formation of CaPs when immersed in SBF. These properties may likely favor bone anchorage and healing by stimulation of mineralizing cells.

Type
Biological and Biomaterials Applications
Copyright
© Microscopy Society of America 2015 

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