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Melamine–Formaldehyde Microcapsules: Micro- and Nanostructural Characterization with Electron Microscopy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2016

Hamed Heidari*
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
Guadalupe Rivero
Affiliation:
Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA) J.B, Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata, Argentina
Hosni Idrissi
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Dhanya Ramachandran
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
Seda Cakir
Affiliation:
Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Ricardo Egoavil
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
Mert Kurttepeli
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
Amandine C. Crabbé
Affiliation:
Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Tom Hauffman
Affiliation:
Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Herman Terryn
Affiliation:
Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Filip Du Prez
Affiliation:
Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Dominique Schryvers
Affiliation:
Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
*
* Corresponding author. hamed.heidari@uantwerpen.be

Abstract

A systematic study has been carried out to compare the surface morphology, shell thickness, mechanical properties, and binding behavior of melamine–formaldehyde microcapsules of 5–30 μm diameter size with various amounts of core content by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy including electron tomography, in situ nanomechanical tensile testing, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. It is found that porosities are present on the outside surface of the capsule shell, but not on the inner surface of the shell. Nanomechanical tensile tests on the capsule shells reveal that Young’s modulus of the shell material is higher than that of bulk melamine–formaldehyde and that the shells exhibit a larger fracture strain compared with the bulk. Core-loss elemental analysis of microcapsules embedded in epoxy indicates that during the curing process, the microcapsule-matrix interface remains uniform and the epoxy matrix penetrates into the surface micro-porosities of the capsule shells.

Type
Materials Applications
Copyright
© Microscopy Society of America 2016 

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Footnotes

Authors contributed equally to the work.

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