Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-rvbq7 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-15T11:33:20.112Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Unraveling the Philosophical Foundations of Co-opetition Strategy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 February 2021

Giovanni Battista Dagnino*
Affiliation:
University of Rome LUMSA, Italy
Anna Minà
Affiliation:
University of Rome LUMSA, Italy
*
Corresponding author: Giovanni Battista Dagnino (g.dagnino@lumsa.it)

Abstract

This article aims to understand how Eastern and Western philosophies shape the perspectives of scholars and practitioners in framing co-opetition (i.e., the coexistence of competition and cooperation) in distinctive manners and, in turn, how such distinctions shape the behavioral patterns of co-opetition. We disentangle the constructs of competition and cooperation and their coexistence as proposed by three Chinese schools of thought (i.e., Taoism, Confucianism, and Legalism) and three Western philosophers (i.e., Immanuel Kant, Georg W. F. Hegel, and Adam Smith). Based on this groundwork, we unveil four comparative philosophical logics used to address the essence of co-opetition (i.e., either/or, both/and, both/or, and either/and). In addition, we apply such East-meeting-West linkages to a typology of co-opetition strategies.

摘要

摘要

本文旨在理解东西方哲学在表达竞合战略(即竞争与合作共存)时如何以不同的方式影响学者和实践者的视角,以及这种区分如何影响竞合的行为模式。根据中国的道家、儒家和法家的思想以及西方的康德、黑格尔和史密斯三位哲学家的论述,我们解构竞争和合作的构念及其共存。在此基础上,我们揭示用于阐述竞合本质的四个比较哲学逻辑。此外,我们运用东方与西方的联结提出一个竞合策略的分类法。

Аннотация

АННОТАЦИЯ

Эта статья ставит своей целью прояснить, каким образом восточная и западная философии формируют взгляды ученых и практиков на развитие состязательного сотрудничества : в различных видах и, в свою очередь, как такие различия формируют поведенческие модели состязательного сотрудничества. Мы выделяем понятия конкуренции, сотрудничества и их сосуществования, как это предлагается тремя китайскими школами мысли (т. е. даосизмом, конфуцианством и легизмом) и тремя западными философами (т. е. Иммануилом Кантом, Георгом В. Ф. Гегелем и Адамом Смитом). На основании этих работ, мы сопоставляем четыре вида философской логики для описания сущности состязательного сотрудничества (т. е. или/или, и то/и другое, и то и другое/или, и или/и). Кроме того, мы применяем такие логические связи, т. н. встреча Востока и Запада, к типологии стратегий состязательного сотрудничества.

Resumen

RESUMEN

Este artículo busca entender cómo las filosofías Orientales y Occidentales dan forma a las perspectivas de los académicos y los profesionales al enmarcar la coopetencia (es decir, la existencia de la competencia y la cooperación) de maneras distintas y, a su vez, cómo estas distinciones dan forma a patrones de comportamiento de coopetencia. Esclarecemos los constructos de competencia y cooperación y su coexistencia como los proponen tres escuelas chinas de pensamiento (es decir, el Taoísmo, Confucionismo, y Legalismo) y tres filósofos Occidentales (es decir, Immanuel Kant, Georg W.F. Hegel, y Adam Smith). A partir de este trabajo de base, revelamos cuatro lógicas comparativas usadas para abordar la esencia de la coopetencia (es decir, cualquiera/o, ambos/y, ambos/y, y cualquiera/y). Además, aplicamos estos vínculos Oriente-Encuentra-Occidente a una tipología de estrategias de coopetencia.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The International Association for Chinese Management Research

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

ACCEPTED BY Deputy Editor Peter Ping Li

References

REFERENCES

Allison, G. T. 1969. Conceptual models and the Cuban missile crisis. American Political Science Review, 63(3): 689718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arslan, B. 2018. The interplay of competitive and cooperative behavior and differential benefits in alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 39(12): 32223246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beersma, B., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Moon, H., Conlon, D. E., & Ilgen, D. R. 2003. Cooperation, competition, and team performance: Toward a contingency approach. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5): 572590.Google Scholar
Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. 2000. Coopetition in business networks–to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(5): 411426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. 2014. Coopetition – Quo vadis? Past accomplishments and future challenges. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2): 180188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengtsson, M., Kock, S., Lundgren-Henriksson, E. L., & Näsholm, M. H. 2016. Coopetition research in theory and practice: Growing new theoretical, empirical, and methodological domains. Industrial Marketing Management, 57(8): 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengtsson, M., Raza-Ullah, T., & Vanyushyn, V. 2016. The coopetition paradox and tension: The moderating role of coopetition capability. Industrial Marketing Management, 53: 1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouncken, R. B., & Kraus, S. 2013. Innovation in knowledge-intensive industries: The double-edged sword of coopetition. Journal of Business Research, 66(10): 20602070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. 1996. Co-opetition. London, UK: HarperCollins Business.Google Scholar
Castaldo, S., Möllering, G., Grosso, M., & Zerbini, F. 2010. Exploring how third-party organizations facilitate coopetition management in buyer-seller relationships. In Yami, S., Castaldo, S., Dagnino, G. B., & Le Roy, F. (Eds.), Coopetition: Winning strategies for the 21st century: 141165. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
Chen, C. C., Chen, X.-P., & Meindl, J. R. 1998. How can cooperation be fostered? The cultural effects of individualism-collectivism. Academy Management Review, 23(2): 285304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, M. J. 2002. Transcending paradox: The Chinese middle way perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(2–3): 179199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, M. J., & Miller, D. 2010. West meets East. Toward an ambicultural approach to management. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(4): 1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, M. J., & Miller, D. 2015. Reconceptualizing competitive dynamics: A multidimensional framework. Strategic Management Journal, 36(5): 758775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, M. J., & Miller, D. 2011. The relational perspective as a business mindset: Managerial implications for East and West. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(3): 618.Google Scholar
Chiambaretto, P., Massé, D., & Mirc, N. 2019. ‘All for One and One for All?’ Knowledge broker roles in managing tensions of internal coopetition: The Ubisoft case. Research Policy, 48(3): 584600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Confucius. 1979. The analects. Trans. Lau, D. C.. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Confucius. 2018. The analects of Confucius. In Eno, R. (Ed.), The analects of Confucius: An online teaching translation. Indiana University-Bloomington. Available from URL: http://www.indiana.edu/~p374/Analects_of_Confucius_(Eno-2015).pdfGoogle Scholar
Dagnino, G. B. 2009. Coopetition strategy: A new kind of interfirm dynamics for value creation. In Dagnino, G. B. & Rocco, E. (Eds.), Coopetition strategy, theory, experiments and cases: 2543. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dagnino, G. B., & Minà, A. 2018. The swinging pendulum of coopetition inquiry. In Fernandez, A. S., Chiambaretto, P., Le Roy, F., & Czakon, W. (Eds.), Routledge companion to coopetition strategies: 6880. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dahl, J. E. C., Kock, S., & Lundgren-Henriksson, E-L. 2016. Conceptualizing coopetition strategy as practice. International Studies of Management and Organization, 46(2–3): 94109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. 2000. Instabilities of strategic alliances: An internal tensions perspective. Organization Science, 11(1): 77101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Rond, M., & Bouchikhi, H. 2004. On the dialectics of strategic alliances. Organization Science, 15(1): 5669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durand, R. 2002. Competitive advantages exist: A critique of Powell. Strategic Management Journal, 23(9): 867872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dussauge, P., Garrette, B., & Mitchell, W. 2000. Learning from competing partners: Outcomes and durations of scale and link alliances in Europe, North America and Asia. Strategic Management Journal, 21(2): 99126.3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fang, T. 2001. Culture as a driving force for interfirm adaptation: A Chinese case. Industrial Marketing Management, 30(1): 5163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fang, T. 2012. Yin Yang: A new perspective on culture. Management and Organization Review, 8(1): 2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandez, A-S., & Chiambaretto, P. 2016. Managing tensions related to information in coopetition. Industrial Marketing Management, 53: 6676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandez, A-S., Le Roy, F., & Gnyawali, D. R. 2014. Sources and management of tension in co-opetition case evidence from telecommunications satellites manufacturing in Europe. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2): 222235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fingarette, H. 1979. The problem of the self in the analects. Philosophy East and West, 29(2): 129140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Floyd, S. W. 2009. Borrowing’ theory: What does this mean and when does it make sense in management scholarship? Journal of Management Studies, 46(6): 10571058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fu, Z. 2016. China's legalists: The earliest totalitarians and their art of ruling. New York, NY: ME Sharpe.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao, H., Ren, M., & Miao, Q. 2018. Toward a Yin-Yang balancing perspective of relational (guanxi) gatekeeping in international exchange relationships in China. Journal of International Marketing, 26(2): 2242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gnyawali, D. R., He, J., & Madhavan, R. 2006. Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: An empirical examination. Journal of Management, 32(4): 507530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gnyawali, D. R., & Park, B. J. R. 2011. Co-opetition between giants: Collaboration with competitors for technological innovation. Research Policy, 40(5): 650663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. 2007. Composing qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomes-Casseres, B. 1996. The alliance revolution: The new shape of business rivalry. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gordon, R. H. 2000. Kant, Smith and Hegel: The market and the categorical imperative. In Trentmann, F. (Ed.), Paradoxes of civil society: New perspectives on modern German and British history: 85105. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
Gulati, R., Nohria, N., & Zaheer, A. 2000. Strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3): 203215.3.0.CO;2-K>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamel, G. 1991. Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12(S1): 83103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamel, G., Doz, Y. L., & Prahalad, C. K. 1989. Collaborate with your competitors and win. Harvard Business Review, 67(1): 133139.Google Scholar
Hang, T. T. 1988. The unity of Yin and Yang: A philosophical assessment. In Liu, S. & Allison, R. E. (Eds.), Harmony and strife, contemporary perspectives, East & West. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
Hargrave, T. J., & Van de Ven, A. H. 2017. Integrating dialectical and paradox perspectives on managing contradictions in organizations. Organization Studies, 38(3–4): 319339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hassard, J., & Pym, D. 2012. The theory and philosophy of organizations: Critical issues and new perspectives. London: RoutledgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegel, G. W. 1807. Phenomenology of Spirit. Trans. Miller, A.V. 1977. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hoffmann, W., Lavie, D., Reuer, J. J., & Shipilov, A. 2018. The interplay of competition and cooperation. Strategic Management Journal, 39(12): 30333052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hwang, K. K. 2012. Foundations of Chinese psychology: Confucian social relations (Vol. 1): 265290. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ingram, P., & Yue, L. Q. 2008. Structure, affect and identity as bases of organizational competition and cooperation. Academy of Management Annals, 2(1): 275303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jing, R., & Van de Ven, A. H. 2014. A yin-yang model of organizational change: The case of Chengdu Bus Group. Management and Organization Review, 10(1): 2954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, C. 2000. Taoist leadership ethics. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(1): 8291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. 1989. Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. 1998. The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of Management Review, 23(3): 531546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kant, I. 1784. Idea for a universal history from a cosmopolitan point of view. In Beck, L. White (Ed.), Kant on history. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
Keller, J. W. 2009. The Tao of coopetition in organizations: Culture and categorization of competitive behaviors in teams and working relationships. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.Google Scholar
Keller, J., & Chen, E. W. 2017. Culture, Paradoxical frames, and behavioral strategy. In Das, T. K. (Ed.), Culture and behavioral strategy: 101124. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
Keller, J., Chen, E., & Leung, A. K. Y. 2018. How national culture influences individuals’ subjective experience with paradoxical tensions. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 25(3): 443-467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, J., & Loewenstein, J. 2011. The cultural category of cooperation: A cultural consensus model analysis for China and the United States. Organization Science, 22(2): 299319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, J., Loewenstein, J., & Yan, J. 2017. Culture, conditions and paradoxical frames. Organization Studies, 38(3–4): 539560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller, J., & Wu, C. 2012. Measuring 'West meets East' in strategic management research using cultural consensus model and cultural mixture model analyses. In Wang, C. L., Ketchen, D. J. Jr., & Bergh, D. D. (Eds.), West meets East: Toward methodological exchange: 161181. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khanna, T., Gulati, R., & Nohria, N. 1998. The dynamics of learning alliances: Competition, cooperation, and relative scope. Strategic Management Journal, 19(3): 193210.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klikauer, T. 2016. Hegel's moral corporation. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
Kylänen, M., & Rusko, R. 2011. Unintentional coopetition in the service industries: The case of Pyhä-Luosto tourism destination in the Finnish Lapland. European Management Journal, 29(3): 193205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lado, A. A., Boyd, N. G., & Hanlon, S. C. 1997. Competition, cooperation, and the search for economic rents: A syncretic model. Academy of Management Review, 22(1): 110141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Law, K. M., & Kesti, M. 2014. Yin Yang and organizational performance: Five elements for improvement and success. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Legge, J. 1994. The Chinese classics: The Chun Tsew, with TsoChuen. Taipei: SMC Publishing.Google Scholar
Leung, A. K. Y., Liou, S., Miron-Spektor, E., Koh, B., Chan, D., Eisenberg, R., & Schneider, I. 2018. Middle ground approach to paradox: Within-and between-culture examination of the creative benefits of paradoxical frames. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(3): 443464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, C. 2006. The Confucian ideal of harmony. Philosophy East and West, 56(4): 583603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P. P. 2012a. Toward an integrative framework of indigenous research: The geocentric implications of Yin-Yang balance. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(4): 849872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P. P. 2012b. Exploring the unique roles of trust and play in private creativity: From the complexity-ambiguity-metaphor link to the trust-play-creativity link. Journal of Trust Research, 2(1): 7197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P. P. 2012c.Toward research-practice balancing in management: The yin-yang method. In Wang, C. L., Ketchen, D. J. Jr., & Bergh, D. D. (Eds.), West meets East: Building theoretical bridges: 91141. Bingley, UK: Emerald.Google Scholar
Li, P. P. 2014a. The unique value of yin-yang balancing: A critical response. Management and Organization Review, 10(2): 321332.Google Scholar
Li, X., 2014b. Can yin-yang guide Chinese indigenous management research? Management and Organization Review, 10(1): 727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P. P. 2014c. Toward the geocentric framework of intuition: The yin-yang balancing between the eastern and western perspectives on intuition. In Sinclair, M. (Ed.), Handbook of research methods on intuition: 2841. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishers.Google Scholar
Li, P. P. 2016. Global implications of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to apply yin-yang balancing to paradox management. Cross-Cultural and Strategic Management, 23: 4277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, Y., Liu, Y., & Liu, H. 2011. Co-opetition, distributor's entrepreneurial orientation and manufacturer's knowledge acquisition: Evidence from China. Journal of Operations Management, 29(1–2): 128142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, X., Worm, V., & Xie, P. 2017. Is Yin-Yang superior for paradox research? Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 25(3): 501514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, P. P., & Yang, M. 2017. How to approach the ancient Chinese wisdom? A commentary concerning Sun Tzu's The Art of War. Management and Organization Review, 13(4): 913920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, L. H., Ho, Y. L., & Lin, W. H. E. 2013. Confucian and Taoist work values: An exploratory study of the Chinese transformational leadership behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(1): 91103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, H. C., & Hou, S. T. 2010. Managerial lessons from the East: An interview with Acer's Stan Shih. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(4): 616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, L., Li, P. P., & Roelfsema, H. 2018. The traditional Chinese philosophies in inter-cultural leadership: The case of Chinese expatriate managers in the Dutch context. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 25(2): 299336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, X. 1991. Wu-wei (non-action): From Laozi to Huainan-zi. Taoist Resources, 3(1): 4156.Google Scholar
Liu, Y., Luo, Y., Yang, P., & Maksimov, V. 2014. Typology and effects of co-opetition in buyer–supplier relationships: Evidence from the Chinese home appliance industry. Management and Organization Review, 10(3): 439465.Google Scholar
Luo, Y. 2004. Coopetition in international business. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
Luo, Y. 2016. Toward a reverse adaptation view in cross-cultural management. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1): 2941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Y., & Rui, H. 2009. An ambidexterity perspective toward multinational enterprises from emerging economies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(4): 4970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, X., Slotegraaf, R. J., & Pan, X. 2006. Cross-functional ‘coopetition’: The simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. Journal of Marketing, 70(2): 6780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Y., & Zheng, Q. 2016. Competing in complex cross-cultural world: Philosophical insights from Yin-Yang. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(2): 386392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma, L., & Tsui, A. S. 2015. Traditional Chinese philosophies and contemporary leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 26(1): 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maijoor, S., & Witteloostuijn, A. V. 1996. An empirical test of the resource-based theory: Strategic regulation in the Dutch audit industry. Strategic Management Journal, 17(7): 549569.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mariani, M. M. 2007. Coopetition as an emergent strategy: empirical evidence from an Italian consortium of opera houses. International Studies of Management & Organization, 37(2): 97126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mariani, M. M. 2018. The role of policy makers and regulators in coopetition. In Fernandez, A. S., Chiambaretto, P., Le Roy, F., & Czakon, W. (Eds.), Routledge companion to coopetition strategies: 105116. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattsson, L. G., & Tidström, A. 2015. Applying the principles of yin–yang to market dynamics: On the duality of cooperation and competition. Marketing Theory, 15(3): 347364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minà, A., Dagnino, G. B., & Ben Letaifa, S. B. 2016. Competition and cooperation in entrepreneurial ecosystems. In Belussi, F. & Orsi, L. (Eds.), Innovation, alliances, and networks in high-tech environments: 6582. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Mintzberg, H., & Waters, J. A. 1985. Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal, 6(3): 257272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miron-Spektor, E., Gino, F., & Argote, L. 2011. Paradoxical frames and creative sparks: Enhancing individual creativity through conflict and integration. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2): 229240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miron-Spektor, E., Ingram, A., Keller, J., Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. 2018. Microfoundations of organizational paradox: The problem is how we think about the problem. Academy of Management Journal, 61(1): 2645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moody, P. R. 2008. Rational choice analysis in classical Chinese political thought: The Han Feizi. Polity, 40(1): 95119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, J. 2001. On psychological terms that appeal to the mental. Behavior and Philosophy, 29: 167186.Google Scholar
Morin, E. 2008. On complexity. Cresskill, NJ: Hampten Press.Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E., 2003. The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently…and why. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Pan, Y., Rowney, J. A., & Peterson, M. F. 2011. The structure of Chinese cultural traditions: An empirical study of business employees in China. Management and Organization Review, 8(1): 7796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, B. J. R., Srivastava, M. K., & Gnyawali, D. R. 2014. Walking the tight rope of coopetition: Impact of competition and cooperation intensities and balance on firm innovation performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2): 210221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pellegrin-Boucher, E., Le Roy, F., & Gurău, C. 2013. Coopetitive strategies in the ICT sector: Typology and stability. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 25(1): 7189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. 2000. Dialectical responses to questions about dialectical thinking. American Psychologist, 55(9): 10671068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peng, T. J. A., Pike, S., Yang, J. C. H., & Roos, G. 2012. Is cooperation with competitors a good idea? An example in practice. British Journal of Management, 23(4): 532560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, T. C. 2003. Strategy without ontology. Strategic Management Journal, 24(3): 285291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prashantham, S., & Eranova, M. 2020. Cultural differences in paradoxical tensions in strategy episodes. Long Range Planning, 53(6). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2018.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritala, P., & Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P. 2013. Incremental and radical innovation in coopetition – The role of absorptive capacity and appropriability. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(1): 154169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ritala, P., Kraus, S., & Bouncken, R. B. 2016. Introduction to coopetition and innovation: contemporary topics and future research opportunities. International Journal of Technology Management, 71(1–2): 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadler-Smith, E., & Keller, J. W. 2019. Paradoxes and dual-process theories: A review and synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 21(2): 162184.Google Scholar
Shang, Y. 2017. The book of Lord Shang: Apologetics of state power in early China. Translated and edited by Pines, Yuri. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. 2011. Toward a theory of paradox: A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of Management Review, 36(2): 381403.Google Scholar
Smith, A. 1759. The theory of moral sentiments. In Raphael, D. D. & Macfie, A. L. (Eds.), 1976. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, W. K., & Tushman, M. L. 2005. Managing strategic contradictions: A top management model for managing innovation streams. Organization Science, 16(5): 522536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spencer-Rodgers, J., Anderson, E., Ma-Kellams, C., Wang, C., & Peng, K. 2018. What is dialectical thinking? Conceptualization and measurement. In Spencer-Rodgers, J. & Peng, K. (Eds.), The psychological and cultural foundations of East Asian cognition: Contradiction, change, and holism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stadtler, L., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. 2016. Coopetition as a paradox: Integrative approaches in a multi-company, cross-sector partnership. Organization Studies, 37(5): 655685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanne, M. B., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. 1999. Does competition enhance or inhibit motor performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(1): 133154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sullivan, R. J. 1989. Immanuel Kant's moral theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taggart, W., & Robey, D. 1981. Minds and managers: On the dual nature of human information processing and management. Academy of Management Review, 6(2): 187195.Google Scholar
Tomasello, M., & Vaish, A. 2013. Origins of human cooperation and morality. Annual Review of Psychology, 64: 231255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsai, W. 2002. Social structure of “coopetition” within a multiunit organization: Coordination, competition, and intraorganizational knowledge sharing. Organization Science, 13(2): 179190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tzu, L. 2012. Tao Te Ching: The classic book of integrity and the way. Bantam.Google Scholar
Verellen, F. 1995. Taoism. Journal of Asian Studies, 54(2): 322346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walsh, S. W. J. 1951. Hegel's philosophical psychology of the individual. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Boston University.Google Scholar
Watson, B. 1967. Basic writings of Mo Tzu, Hsun Tzu, and Han Fei Tzu . New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
White, M. D. 2010. Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant: On markets, duties and moral sentiments. Social Economics, 39: 5360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilde, L. 1991. Logic: Dialectic and contradiction. In Carver, T. (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to Marx: 275295. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilhelm, M. M. 2011. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations: Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis. Journal of Operations Management, 29(7–8): 663676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilhelm, M., & Sydow, J. 2018. Managing Coopetition in Supplier Networks–A Paradox Perspective. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 54(3): 2241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winston, K. 2005. The internal morality of Chinese legalism. Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, (December): 313347.Google Scholar
Wood, A. 2009. Kant's Fourth Proposition: the unsociable sociability of human nature. In Oksenberg Rorty, A. & Schmidt, J. (Eds.), Kant's Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim: A Critical Guide: 112128. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Yang, Z., & Su, C. 2013. Understanding Asian business strategy: Modeling institution-based legitimacy-embedded efficiency. Journal of Business Research, 66(12): 23692374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Y., Waldman, D. A., Han, Y.-L., & Li, X.-B. 2015. Paradoxical leader behaviors in people management: Antecedents and consequences. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2): 538566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou, S. S., Li, P. P., Zhou, A. J., & Prashantham, S. 2019. The cultural roots of compositional capability in China: Balanced moderation. Asia Pacific Journal Management, 37: 12171237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-018-9637-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar