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Unraveling the Philosophical Foundations of Co-opetition Strategy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 February 2021

Giovanni Battista Dagnino*
University of Rome LUMSA, Italy
Anna Minà
University of Rome LUMSA, Italy
Corresponding author: Giovanni Battista Dagnino (


This article aims to understand how Eastern and Western philosophies shape the perspectives of scholars and practitioners in framing co-opetition (i.e., the coexistence of competition and cooperation) in distinctive manners and, in turn, how such distinctions shape the behavioral patterns of co-opetition. We disentangle the constructs of competition and cooperation and their coexistence as proposed by three Chinese schools of thought (i.e., Taoism, Confucianism, and Legalism) and three Western philosophers (i.e., Immanuel Kant, Georg W. F. Hegel, and Adam Smith). Based on this groundwork, we unveil four comparative philosophical logics used to address the essence of co-opetition (i.e., either/or, both/and, both/or, and either/and). In addition, we apply such East-meeting-West linkages to a typology of co-opetition strategies.






Эта статья ставит своей целью прояснить, каким образом восточная и западная философии формируют взгляды ученых и практиков на развитие состязательного сотрудничества : в различных видах и, в свою очередь, как такие различия формируют поведенческие модели состязательного сотрудничества. Мы выделяем понятия конкуренции, сотрудничества и их сосуществования, как это предлагается тремя китайскими школами мысли (т. е. даосизмом, конфуцианством и легизмом) и тремя западными философами (т. е. Иммануилом Кантом, Георгом В. Ф. Гегелем и Адамом Смитом). На основании этих работ, мы сопоставляем четыре вида философской логики для описания сущности состязательного сотрудничества (т. е. или/или, и то/и другое, и то и другое/или, и или/и). Кроме того, мы применяем такие логические связи, т. н. встреча Востока и Запада, к типологии стратегий состязательного сотрудничества.



Este artículo busca entender cómo las filosofías Orientales y Occidentales dan forma a las perspectivas de los académicos y los profesionales al enmarcar la coopetencia (es decir, la existencia de la competencia y la cooperación) de maneras distintas y, a su vez, cómo estas distinciones dan forma a patrones de comportamiento de coopetencia. Esclarecemos los constructos de competencia y cooperación y su coexistencia como los proponen tres escuelas chinas de pensamiento (es decir, el Taoísmo, Confucionismo, y Legalismo) y tres filósofos Occidentales (es decir, Immanuel Kant, Georg W.F. Hegel, y Adam Smith). A partir de este trabajo de base, revelamos cuatro lógicas comparativas usadas para abordar la esencia de la coopetencia (es decir, cualquiera/o, ambos/y, ambos/y, y cualquiera/y). Además, aplicamos estos vínculos Oriente-Encuentra-Occidente a una tipología de estrategias de coopetencia.

Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The International Association for Chinese Management Research

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ACCEPTED BY Deputy Editor Peter Ping Li



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