An account of thelotremoid species of Graphidaceae in India is provided, which includes 124 species in 24 genera. Ocellularia and Thelotrema are the most diverse genera represented by 34 and 18 species, respectively. Type specimens were re-examined and additional samples studied morphologically and chemically. One new species, Ocellularia upretii S. Joshi, Divakar, Lumbsch & Lücking, is described; it is characterized by a greyish green thallus, porinoid ascomata, brown proper exciple, simple, carbonized columella, clear hymenium, transversely septate, amyloid ascospores of 110–125×15–20 µm and an absence of secondary metabolites. Asteristion australianum, Astrochapsa mirabilis, Cruentotrema cruentatum, C. kurandense, Ocellularia violacea and Thelotrema adjectum are reported as new to the country, and Astrochapsa mirabilis, Melanotrema submicrosporoides, Ocellularia annuloelevata, O. subkeralensis and Rhabdodiscus verrucoisidiatus are proposed as new combinations. Diploschistes awasthii, Ocellularia gupeti, O. leucina, O. mahabalei, Thelotrema confertum and T. verrucorugosum are synonymized under D. scruposus, O. neomasonhalei, O. urceolaris, O. thelotremoides, Chapsa leprocarpoides and T. rugatulum, respectively, with Ocellularia canariana and O. verrucomarginata reduced to synonymy with O. allosporoides.