Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-w9nzq Total loading time: 0.942 Render date: 2021-08-04T20:25:14.721Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Measurement of growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum using a new photographic technique

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2012

Daniel P. McCARTHY
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario Canada L2S 3A1. Email: dmccarthy2@brocku.ca
Nicole HENRY
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario Canada L2S 3A1. Email: dmccarthy2@brocku.ca
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Extended software and a photographic time series were used to generate accurate and precise measures of change in the area, perimeter and diameter of Rhizocarpon thalli at one, three and seven year intervals. Systematic measurements at a fixed grid of eight diameters per thallus showed a rapid and highly variable diametric growth phase in the smallest thalli (<5 mm2) and slower diametric growth (<0·01 mm2 yr–1) in larger thalli (5–500 mm2). When standardized to an annual rate, the areal growth trend was similar, regardless of the number of years studied. This suggests that the areal and diametric growth of small and mid-sized Rhizocarpon thalli may be insensitive to annual climatic variation and can be accurately characterized by repeat measurements taken over months rather than decades. Unlike diametric growth rate, change in thallus area and perimeter are statistically robust measures of growth in Rhizocarpon thalli. Our mean measurement accuracy was 99%. Measurement precision (reproducibility) was >95% (P>0·05) for thallus area and >96% for thallus perimeter. Our technique is tedious, but on flat rocks it can resolve and accurately measure change in thallus morphology at the sub-millimeter scale, and it can be used with recent and/or historical images.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © British Lichen Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andrews, J. T. & Webber, P. J. (1969) Lichenometry to evaluate changes in glacial mass budgets: as illustrated from North-Central Baffin Island, N.W.T. Arctic and Alpine Research 1: 181194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Asta, J. & Letrouit-Galinou, M.-A. (1995) Observations on the early growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum thalli. Herzogia 11: 239252.Google Scholar
Benedict, J. (2008) Experiments on lichen growth, III. The shape of the age-size curve. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40: 1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowker, M. A., Johnson, N. C., Belnap, J. & Koch, G. W. (2008) Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 869878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brabyn, L., Green, A., Beard, C. & Seppelt, R. (2005) GIS goes nano: vegetation studies in Victoria Land, Antarctica. New Zealand Geographer 61: 139147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradwell, T. (2010) Studies on the growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum in NW Scotland, and some implications for lichenometry. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 92: 4152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradwell, T. & Armstrong, R. A. (2007) Growth rates of Rhizocarpon geographicum lichens: a review with new data from Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science 22: 311320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brodo, I. M. (1965) Studies of growth rates of corticolous lichens on Long Island, New York. Bryologist 68: 451456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campana, S. E. (2001) Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. Journal of Fish Biology 59: 197242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, P. J. & Proctor, M. C. F. (1978) Observations on a season's growth in Parmelia caperata and P. sulcata in South Devon. Lichenologist 10: 8189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gazzano, C., Favero-Longo, S. E., Matteucci, E. & Piervittori, R. (2009) Image analysis for measuring lichen colonization on and within stonework. Lichenologist 41: 299313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hale, M. E. Jr. (1959) Studies on lichen growth rate and succession. Bulletin of the Torrey Club 86: 126129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawksworth, D. L. & Chater, A. O. (1979) Dynamism and equilibrium in a saxicolous lichen mosaic. Lichenologist 11: 7580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, D. J. (1992) Lobe growth in lichen thalli. Symbiosis 12: 4255.Google Scholar
Hill, D. J. (2002) Measurement of lichen growth. In Protocols in Lichenology: Culturing, Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Use in Biomonitoring (Kranner, I., Beckett, R. P. & Varma, A. K., eds): 255278. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hooker, T. N. & Brown, D. H. (1977) A photographic method for accurately measuring the growth of crustose and foliose saxicolous lichens. Lichenologist 9: 6575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, H. B., Clair, L. L. S. & Eggett, D. L. (2006) Size is not a reliable measure of sexual fecundity in two species of lichenized fungi. Bryologist 109: 157165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, W. W. III, Andrews, J. T. & Webber, P. J. (1979) A Manual for Lichenometry. Technical Bulletin 26. Norwich: Geo Abstracts for the British Geomorphological Research Group.Google Scholar
Matthews, J. A. & Trenbirth, H. E. (2011) Growth rate of a very large crustose lichen (Rhizocarpon subgenus) and its implications for lichenometry. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 93: 2739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, D. P. (2003) Estimating lichenometric ages by direct and indirect measurement of radial growth: a case study of Rhizocarpon agg. at the Illecillewaet Glacier, British Columbia. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 35: 203213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, D. P. (2007) Lichenometry. In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (Elias, S. A., ed): 13991405. Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, D. P. & Zaniewski, K. (2001) Digital analysis of lichen cover: a technique for use in lichenometry and lichenology. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 31: 107113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, D. F. & McCune, B. (1990) Annual branching in the lichen Evernia prunastri in Oregon. Bryologist 93: 3236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trenbirth, H. E. & Matthews, J. A. (2010) Lichen growth rates on glacier forelands in southern Norway: preliminary results from a 25-year monitoring programme. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 92: 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Measurement of growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum using a new photographic technique
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Measurement of growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum using a new photographic technique
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Measurement of growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum using a new photographic technique
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *