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Copyright and Contracts: the Use of Electronic Resources Provided by University Libraries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2012

Abstract

Universities enter into contracts with publishers or providers of aggregated resources on behalf of university libraries to provide staff and students with access to material in electronic format for educational and research purposes. Following a brief review of twelve database provider contracts, our research demonstrates that Australian academics are potentially breaching the contractual terms and conditions of electronic resources when accessing, downloading and printing articles and other materials. They are covered for research purposes, but not for educational purposes.

Type
International Perspectives
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2012. Published by British and Irish Association of Law Librarians

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References

Footnotes

1 Attorney General Department. (2005) Fair use and other copyright exceptions: An examination of fair use, fair dealing and other exceptions in the digital age. http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/(CFD7369FCAE9B8F32F341DBE097801FF)~FairUseIssuesPaper050505.pdf/$file/FairUseIssuesPaper050505.pdf at 7 April 2008.

2 Copyright Law Review Committee. (2002) Contract and copyright. [2.02] http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/RWPDD516F2DE964EF5ACA25735A001E5106; at 5 February 2010; See Selvadural, Niloufer and Islam, Md Rizwanul. (2010) Reproduction and communication of internet material by educational institutions: The need for clarity and certainty. Australian Intellectual Property Journal 21(1), 3141Google Scholar.

4 Under s.115 of the Act an article includes a reproduction or copy of a work or other subject matter being a reproduction or copy in electronic form.

5 Wiseman, Leanne. (2001) Digital copying in the academy: the new Australian educational copying licence. 8 http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/copyright/c_in_e01.html at 4 February 2008.

6 Ibid.

7 Educational purpose is defined under s 10(1A) of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

8 Shelly, Marita. (2008) Commercial activities and copyright in Australian universities. Education and the Law 20(3), 175191CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) and the Australian Committee of Directors and Principles Limited. (1990) Copyright: A guide for higher education institutions to the Copyright Act 1968, as amended including the 1989 amendments. Sydney, AVCC.

9 Ibid.

10 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.10(1A).

11 Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000 (Cth).

12 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMA.

13 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMB.

14 Two or more articles in the periodical can be copied if the articles relate to the same subject matter.

15 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMC.

16 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMC.

17 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.10(2A).

18 This section does not apply to articles within periodical publications.

19 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMDA.

20 Refer to ss 103A – 103C for fair dealing exceptions related to subject matters other than works, for example, audio-visual items.

21 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), ss 40–43.

22 95 ALR 625.

23 De Garis v Neville Jeffress Pidler Pty Ltd (1990) 95 ALR 625, Beaumont J, 629.

24 Ibid, Beaumont J, 630.

25 See Ricketson, Staniforth and Creswell, Christopher. (2002) The law of intellectual property: Copyright, designs & confidential information. 2nd edition revised. Sydney, Law Book Co.

26 Monash University. (n.d.) Copyright and research activity. http://www.copyright.monash.edu.au/research/#thirdparty at 12 May 2011.

27 Ibid.

28 95 ALR 625.

29 Attorney General. (2000) Copyright reform: Copyright amendment (digital agenda) act. http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/%28CFD7369FCAE9B8F32F341DBE097801FF%29~xxcopyfactsheet.pdf/$file/xxcopyfactsheet.pdf; at 31 March 2010.

30 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s 40(2).

31 Shelly, Marita. (2008) Commercial activities and copyright in Australian universities. Education and the Law 20(3), 175191CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 183 para-phrasing Ricketson, Staniforth and Creswell, Christopher. (2002) The law of intellectual property: Copyright, designs & confidential information. 2nd edition revised. Sydney, Law Book Co.

32 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.40(3).

33 Ricketson and Creswell. above n 25, [11.41].

34 17 US Code §107

35 See Sony Corporation of America, et al v Universal City Studios, Inc, et al (1984) 464 US 417, 78 LEd2d 574, 104 S Ct 774; American Geophysical Union v Texaco Inc 802 F Supp 1 (SDNY 1992); 60 F.3d 913 (2nd Cir. 1994); Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade Inc. 977 F.2d 1510 (9th Cir. 1992); Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc v Connectix Corporation 203 F.3d 596 (9th Cir. 2000).

36 17 U.S.C. §§ 108 and 110 (1) and (2).

37 United States Copyright Office. Circular 21: Reproduction of copyrighted works by educators and librarians. http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf at 30 October 2011.

38 Ibid, 1.

39 Standford University Libraries. (2010) Copyright and fair use overview. http://fairuse.stanford.edu/Copyright_and_Fair_Use_Overview/chapter7/index.html at 12 May 2011; Public Counsel Law Centre. (2010) Copyright and fair use basics for nonprofits. http://www.publiccounsel.org/tools/publications/files/fairuse.pdf at 12 May 2011

40 United States Copyright Office. above n. 37, 6.

41 See Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988, ss.32 to 36A.

42 Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988,

43 Permitted Acts. (n.d.) Copyright toolkit. http://copyrighttoolkit.com/permitted.html#photocla at 19 June 2011.

44 Ibid.

45 Based on the RMIT University 2008 Library Annual Report http://mams.rmit.edu.au/edszfdr6su8g1.pdf at 24 June 2011.

46 For literary works in electronic form, a reasonable portion is 10 percent of the number of words in the work.

47 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.40.

48 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.135ZMDA.

49 European Court of Justice 9 November 2004, Case C-444/02 (Fixtures Marketing Ltd v Organismos Prognostikon Agonon Prodosfairu (OPAP)), ECR 2004, para 32.

50 Zwart, Melissa De, (2003) Seriously entertaining: The panel and the future of fair dealing. Media & Arts Law Review 8 (1), 117Google Scholar, 6.

51 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.10(2A).

52 No more than two pages or one per cent of the total number of the pages. If the work has no pages, then no more than one percent of the total number of words can be reproduced or communicated.

53 If the work is has been published separately.

54 One periodical article is considered a reasonable portion as is 10 percent of the total number of words in the work.

55 Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy. (2010) The relationship between copyright and contract. http://www.ipo.gov.uk/ipresearch-relation-201007.pdf at 24 November 2011

56 Copyright Law Review Committee. (2002) Contract and copyright. 3 http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/RWPDD516F2DE964EF5ACA25735A001E5106 at 5 February 2010.

57 Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), s.47H.

58 Sections 47B to 47F relate to computer programs and include making a copy of a program for the purpose of studying the ideas and functions of the program, making a backup copy of a program or making a reproduction of a program to correct errors or for security testing.

59 Shelly, Marita. (2008) Commercial activities and copyright in Australian universities. Education and the Law 20(3), 175191CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 183.

60 Copyright Law Review Committee. above n.56, [6.01].

61 Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy. above n.55, 118.

62 Attorney General Department. above n.1, 8.

63 Ricketson and Creswell. above n.25, [11.41].

64 Copyright Law Review Committee. above n.56, [6.01].

65 Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy. above n.55, 16.

66 See Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy. above n.55.

67 British Library. (2009) Copyright for education and research: Golden opportunity or digital black hole? http://pressandpolicy.bl.uk/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=564 at 24 November 2011; See British Library. (2008) Digital is not different say 93% of UK researchers. http://pressandpolicy.bl.uk/Press-Releases/Digital-is-not-different-say-93-of-UK-researchers-337.aspx at 24 November 2011.

68 British Library. (2009) Copyright for education and research: Golden opportunity or digital black hole? http://pressandpolicy.bl.uk/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=564 at 24 November 2011.

69 British Library. (n.d.) Analysis of 100 contracts offered to the British library. http://pressandpolicy.bl.uk/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=691 at 6 February 2011.

70 Strategic Advisory Board for Intellectual Property Policy. above n 55; See http://www.bl.uk/ip/pdf/ipmatrix.pdf