Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-c2ftz Total loading time: 0.524 Render date: 2022-12-08T06:08:43.422Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

“Kind of Natural, Kind of Wrong”: Young People's Beliefs about the Morality, Legality, and Normalcy of Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Settings

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 December 2018


Unwelcome touching, groping, and kissing are illegal, but widely tolerated in public drinking settings. This contingency in the law's response means that patrons routinely negotiate the moral boundaries of nonconsensual sexual contact. We use 197 interviews with college-age individuals to examine the discursive strategies young people employ when negotiating those boundaries. We find that most interviewees have experiences with sexual aggression, do not categorize it as aggression, but advocate for stronger legal punishments against offenders. In accounting for this paradox, they draw on contradictory legal and cultural narratives that both normalize and condemn men's sexual aggression. We build on legal consciousness theories and gender theories by highlighting the complex ways that gender stereotypes enshrined in law are implicated in the construction of a social problem. We also contribute to the sociology of culture by explicating the often unconscious link between culture and action revealed in young people's narratives about sexual aggression.

Copyright © American Bar Foundation, 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Anderson, Michelle J. 2010. Diminishing the Legal Impact of Negative Social Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape Victims. New Criminal Law Review 13:644–60.Google Scholar
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., England, Paula, and Fogarty, Alison C. K. 2012. Accounting for Women's Orgasm and Sexual Enjoyment in College Hookups and Relationships. American Sociological Review 77:435–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Hamilton, Laura, and Sweeney, Brian. 2006. Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape. Social Problems 53:483–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholet, Elizabeth, and 27 Harvard Law School Faculty. 2014. Rethink Harvard's Sexual Harassment Policy. The Boston Globe, October 15. (accessed November 17, 2014).Google Scholar
Basow, Susan A., and Minieri, Alexandra. 2011. “You Owe Me”: Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26:‐479–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Becker, Sarah, and Tinkler, Justine E. 2015. “Me Getting Plastered and Her Provoking My Eyes”: Young People's Attribution of Blame for Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Spaces. Feminist Criminology 10:235–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Sarah, and Tinkler, Justine E. N.d. “Just Trying to Cop a Feel”: How Gender and Race Shape Young People's Tolerance of Nonconsensual Sexual Contact in Public Drinking Settings. Unpublished.Google Scholar
Beichner, Dawn, and Spohn, Cassia. 2012. Modeling the Effects of Victim Behavior and Moral Character on Prosecutors' Charging Decisions in Sexual Assault Cases. Violence and Victims 27:324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, Monica C. 2007. Grassroots Death Sentences? The Social Movement for Capital Child Rape Laws. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 98:129.Google Scholar
Bisom‐Rapp, Susan. 2001. An Ounce of Prevention Is a Poor Substitute for a Pound of Cure: Confronting the Developing Jurisprudence of Education and Prevention in Employment Discrimination Law. Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law 22: 147.Google Scholar
Bogle, Kathleen A. 2008. Hooking Up: Sex, Dating, and Relationships on Campus. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Brunson, Rod K., and Miller, Jody. 2006. Gender, Race, and Urban Policing: The Experience of African American Youths. Gender & Society 20:531–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buddie, Amy, and Parks, Kathleen A. 2003. The Role of the Bar Context and Social Behaviors on Women's Risk for Aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 18:1378–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2013. Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994–2010. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice. (accessed September 28, 2013).Google Scholar
Capers, I. Bennett. 2013. Real Women, Real Rape. UCLA Law Review 60:827–82.Google Scholar
Carter, Chelsea J., and Harlow, Poppy. 2013. Alleged Victim in Steubenville Rape Case Says She Woke Up Naked. CNN, March 18. (accessed September 3, 2013).Google Scholar
Carter, J. Scott, and Borch, Casey A. 2005. Assessing the Effects of Urbanism and Regionalism on Gender‐Role Attitudes, 1974–1998. Sociological Inquiry 75:548–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clay‐Warner, Jody, and Burt, Callie H. 2005. Rape Reporting after Reforms: Have Times Really Changed? Violence Against Women 11 (2): 150–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohn, Ellen S., Dupuis, Erin C., and Brown, Tiffany M. 2009. In the Eye of the Beholder: Do Behavior and Character Affect Victim and Perpetrator Responsibility for Acquaintance Rape? Journal of Applied Social Psychology 39:1513–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connell, Raewyn. 1995. Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Connell, Raewyn. 2002. On Hegemonic Masculinity and Violence: Response to Jefferson & Hall. Theoretical Criminology 6:8999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooney, Mark, and Burt, Callie H. 2008. Less Crime, More Punishment. American Journal of Sociology 114:491527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corrigan, Rose. 2006. Making Meaning of Megan's Law. Law & Social Inquiry 31:267312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crenshaw, Kimberle. 1991. Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review 43:1241–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cummings, Kimberly M., and Armenta, Madeline. 2002. Penalties for Peer Sexual Harassment in an Academic Context: The Influence of Harasser Gender, Participant Gender, Severity of Harassment, and the Presence of Bystanders. Sex Roles 47 (5/6): 273–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Currier, Danielle M. 2013. Strategic Ambiguity: Protecting Emphasized Femininity and Hegemonic Masculinity in the Hookup Culture. Gender & Society 27:704–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Decker, John F., and Baroni, Peter G. 2011. “No” Still Means “Yes”: The Failure of the “Non‐Consent” Reform Movement in American Rape and Sexual Assault Law. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 101: 10811169.Google Scholar
Dobbin, Frank, and Kelly, Erin L. 2007. How to Stop Harassment: Professional Construction of Legal Compliance in Organizations. American Journal of Sociology 112:1203–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durkheim, Emile. [1895] 1964. The Rules of Sociological Method. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Eliasoph, Nina, and Lichterman, Paul. 2003. Culture in Interaction. American Journal of Sociology 108:735–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Embry, Randa, and Lyons, Phillip M. Jr. 2012. Sex‐Based Sentencing: Sentencing Discrepancies Between Male and Female Sex Offenders. Feminist Criminology 7 (2): 146–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
England, Paula, Shafer, Emily F., and Fogarty, Alison C. K. 2008. Hooking Up and Forming Romantic Relationships on Today's College Campuses. In The Gendered Society Reader (3rd ed.), ed. Kimmel, Michael and Aronson, Amy, 531–47. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 2013. Sexual Harassment. (accessed September 2, 2013).Google Scholar
Estrich, Susan. 1986. Rape. Yale Law Journal 95:10871184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewick, Patricia, and Silbey, Susan S. 1998. The Common Place of Law: Stories from Everyday Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faris, Robert, and Felmlee, Diane. 2011. Status Struggles: Network Centrality and Gender Segregation in Same‐ and Cross‐Gender Aggression. American Sociological Review 76:4873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felstiner, William L. F., Abel, Richard L., and Sarat, Austin. 1980. The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming. Law & Society Review 15:631–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giuffre, Patti, and Williams, Christine. 1994. Boundary Lines: Labeling Sexual Harassment in Restaurants. Gender & Society 8:378401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glick, Peter, and Fiske, Susan T. 1996. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating Hostile and Benevolent Sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:491512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glick, Peter, Fiske, Susan T., Mladinic, Antonio, Saiz, Jose L., Abrams, Dominic, Masser, Barbara, Adetoun, Bolanle, Osagie, Johnstone E., Akande, Adebowale, Alao, Amos, Brunner, Annetje, Willemsen, Tineke M., Chipeta, Kettie, Dardenne, Benoit, Dijksterhuis, Ap, Wigboldus, Daniel, Eckes, Thomas, Six‐Materna, Iris, Exposito, Francisca, and Moya, Miguel. 2000. Beyond Prejudice as Simple Antipathy: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism across Cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79:763–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glick, Peter, Lameiras, Maria, Fiske, Susan T., Eckes, Thomas, Masser, Barbara, Volpato, Chiara, Manganelli, Anna Maria, Pek, Jolynn C. X., Huang, Li‐li, Sakalli‐Ugurlu, Nuray, Castro, Yolanda Rodriguez, D'Avila Pereira, Maria Luiza, Willemsen, Tineke M., Brunner, Annetje, Six‐Materna, Iris, and Wells, Robin. 2004. Bad but Bold: Ambivalent Attitudes toward Men Predict Gender Inequality in 16 Nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86:713–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham, Kathryn, Bernards, Sharon, Osgood, D. Wayne, Abbey, Antonia, Parks, Michael, Flynn, Andrea, Dumas, Tara, and Wells, Samantha. 2014. “Blurred Lines?” Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 38:1416–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graham, Kathryn, and Wells, Samantha. 2003. “Somebody's Gonna Get Their Head Kicked in Tonight!”: Aggression among Young Males in Bars—A Question of Values? British Journal of Criminology 43:546–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Kathryn, Wells, Samantha, Bernards, Sharon, and Dennison, Susan. 2010. “Yes, I Do But Not With You”: Qualitative Analyses of Sexual/Romantic Overture–Related Aggression in Bars and Clubs. Contemporary Drug Problems 37 (2): 197240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grazian, David. 2007. The Girl Hunt: Urban Nightlife and the Performance of Masculinity as Collective Activity. Symbolic Interaction 30 (2): 221–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenlaw, Paul S., and Kohl, John P. 1992. Proving Title VII Sexual Harassment: The Courts' View. Labor Law Journal 43 (3): 164–71.Google Scholar
Grubb, Amy, and Harrower, Julie. 2008. Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim. Aggression and Violent Behavior 13:396405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, James. 1998. The Impact of Male Work Environments and Organizational Policies on Women's Experiences of Sexual Harassment. Gender & Society 12:301–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gusfield, Joseph R. 1967. Moral Passage: The Symbolic Process in Moral Designations of Deviance. Social Problems 15 (2): 175–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutek, Barbara A., Morasch, Bruce, and Cohen, Aaron G. 1983. Interpreting Social–Sexual Behavior in a Work Setting. Journal of Vocational Behavior 22:3048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, Laura, and Armstrong, Elizabeth A. 2009. Gendered Sexuality in Young Adulthood: Double Binds and Flawed Options. Gender & Society 23:589616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heldman, Caroline, and Wade, Lisa. 2010. Hook Up Culture: Setting a New Research Agenda. Sexuality Research and Social Policy 7:323–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hingson, Ralph W., Zha, Wenxing, and Weitzman, Elissa R. 2009. Magnitude of and Trends in Alcohol‐Related Mortality and Morbidity among U.S. College Students ages 18–24, 1998–2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , Supplement 1 (16): 1220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hlavka, Heather. 2014. Normalizing Sexual Violence: Young People Account for Harassment and Abuse. Gender & Society 28:337–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, Peter B., and Hardyman, Patricia L. 1986. Crime Seriousness Scales: Public Perception and Feedback to Criminal Justice Policymakers. Journal of Criminal Justice 14:413–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollander, Jocelyn. 2001. Vulnerability and Dangerousness: The Construction of Gender through Conversation about Violence. Gender & Society 15:83109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holstein, James, and Gubrium, Jaber F. 1995. The Active Interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, Kristina M., Sher, Kenneth J., and Park, Aesoon. 2005. Drinking among College Students: Consumption and Consequences. In Recent Developments in Alcoholism. Vol. XVII, Research on Alcohol Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults, ed. Galanter, Marc, 85117. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jerolmack, Colin, and Khan, Shamus. 2014. Talk Is Cheap: Ethnography and the Attitudinal Fallacy. Sociological Methods & Research 43 (2): 178209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Corey. 2005. “The First Step Is the Two‐Step”: Hegemonic Masculinity and Dancing in a Country‐Western Gay Bar. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 18:445–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kane, Emily W., and Macaulay, Laura J. 1993. Interviewer Gender and Gender Attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly 57:128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kavanaugh, Philip R. 2013. The Continuum of Sexual Violence: Women's Accounts of Victimization in Urban Nightlife. Feminist Criminology 8:2039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kleinfeld, Joshua. 2013. A Theory of Criminal Victimization. Stanford Law Review 65:10871152.Google Scholar
LaFree, Gary D. 1980. Variables Affecting Guilty Pleas and Convictions in Rape Cases: Toward a Social Theory of Rape Processing. Social Forces 58:833–50.Google Scholar
Lamont, Ellen. 2014. Negotiating Courtship: Reconciling Egalitarian Ideals with Traditional Gender Norms. Gender & Society 28:189211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Littleton, Heather, Tabernik, Holly, Canales, Erika J., and Backstrom, Tamika. 2009. Risky Situation or Harmless Fun? A Qualitative Examination of College Women's Bad Hook‐Up and Rape Scripts. Sex Roles 60:793804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLaughlin, Heather, Uggen, Christopher, and Blackstone, Amy. 2012. Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power. American Sociological Review 77:625–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merry, Sally Engle. 1990. Getting Justice and Getting Even: Legal Consciousness Among Working‐Class Americans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Damon, Angelone, D. J., Kohlberger, Brittany, and Hirschman, Richard. 2009. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24:1564–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
New, Jake. 2014. The Yes Means Yes World. Inside Higher Ed, October 17. (accessed November 17, 2014).Google Scholar
Nielsen, Laura Beth. 2000. Situating Legal Consciousness: Experiences and Attitudes of Ordinary Citizens about Law and Street Harassment. Law & Society Review 34:1055–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, Laura Beth. 2006. License to Harass: Law, Hierarchy, and Offensive Public Speech. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
O'Leary‐Kelly, Anne M., Paetzold, Ramona L., and Griffin, Ricky W. 2000. Sexual Harassment as Aggressive Behavior: An Actor‐Based Perspective. Academy of Management Review 25:372–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orchowski, Lindsay, Untied, Amy, and Gidycz, Christine. 2013. Factors Associated with College Women's Labeling of Sexual Victimization. Violence and Victims 28:940–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parks, Kathleen A., and Miller, Brenda A. 1997. Bar Victimization of Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 21:509–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pascoe, C. J. 2007. Dude, You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Patton, Michael Quinn. 2002. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Powers, Rebecca S., Suitor, J. Jill, Guerra, Susana, Shackelford, Monisa, Mecom, Dorothy, and Gusman, Kim. 2003. Regional Differences in Gender‐Role Attitudes: Variations by Gender and Race. Gender Issues 21 (2): 4054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, Neil, and Hawkins, Kirstan. 2002. Researching Sexual and Reproductive Behaviour: A Peer Ethnographic Approach. Social Science and Medicine 55:1325–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pugh, Allison J. 2013. What Good Are Interviews for Thinking About Culture? Demystifying Interpretive Analysis. American Journal of Cultural Sociology 1:4268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridgeway, Cecilia. 2011. Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridgeway, Cecilia, Backor, Kristen, Li, Yan, Tinkler, Justine, and Erickson, Kristen. 2009. How Easily Does a Social Difference Become a Status Distinction? Gender Matters. American Sociological Review 74:4462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridgeway, Cecilia, and Correll, Shelley J. 2004. Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Gender Beliefs and Social Relations. Gender & Society 18:510–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ronen, Shelly. 2010. Grinding on the Dance Floor: Gendered Scripts and Sexualized Dancing at College Parties. Gender & Society 24:355–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubenfeld, Jed. 2014. Mishandling Rape. The New York Times, November 15. (accessed June 22, 2016).Google Scholar
Ryo, Emily. 2013. Deciding to Cross: Norms and Economics of Unauthorized Migration. American Sociological Review 78:574603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saguy, Abigail C. 2003. What Is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Saguy, Abigail C., and Stuart, Forrest. 2008. Culture and Law: Beyond a Paradigm of Cause and Effect. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 619:149–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schultz, Vicki. 1998. Reconceptualizing Sexual Harassment. Yale Law Journal 107:16831805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scully, Diana, and Marolla, Joseph. 1999. Convicted Rapists' Vocabulary of Motive: Excuses and Justifications. In In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (2nd ed.), ed. Cromwell, Paul, 137–46. Boston, MA: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Sennott, Christie, and Mollborn, Stefanie. 2011. College‐Bound Teens' Decisions about the Transition to Sex: Negotiating Competing Norms. Advances in Life Course Research 16 (2): 8397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silbey, Susan S. 2005. After Legal Consciousness. Annual Review of Law and Social Science 1:323–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sizemore, O. J. 2013. The Role of Perpetrator Motivation in Two Crime Scenarios. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28:8091.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Small, Jamie L. 2015. Classing Sex Offenders: How Prosecutors and Defense Attorneys Differentiate Men Accused of Sexual Assault. Law & Society Review 49:109–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strauss, Anselm, and Corbin, Juliet. 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Strouse, Jeremiah S. 1987. College Bars as Social Settings for Heterosexual Contacts. Journal of Sex Research 23:374–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suarez, Eliana, and Gadalla, Tahany M. 2010. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta‐Analysis on Rape Myths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25:2010–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suitor, J. Jill, and Carter, Rebecca S. 1999. Jocks, Nerds, Babes and Thugs: A Research Note on Regional Differences in Adolescent Gender Norms. Gender Issues 17 (3): 87101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swidler, Ann. 1986. Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies. American Sociological Review 51:273–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swidler, Ann. 2008. Comment on Stephen Vaisey's “Socrates, Skinner, and Aristotle: Three Ways of Thinking about Culture in Action.” Sociological Forum 23:614–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terpstra, David E., and Baker, Douglas D. 1992. Outcomes of Federal Court Decisions on Sexual Harassment. Academy of Management Journal 35:181–90.Google Scholar
Thompson, Edward H. Jr., and Cracco, Elizabeth J. 2008. Sexual Aggression in Bars: What College Men Can Normalize. Journal of Men's Studies 16:8296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinkler, Justine E. 2008. “People Are Too Quick to Take Offense”: The Effects of Legal Information and Beliefs on Definitions of Sexual Harassment. Law & Social Inquiry 33:417–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinkler, Justine E. 2012. Resisting the Enforcement of Sexual Harassment Law. Law & Social Inquiry 37:124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tinkler, Justine E. 2013. How Do Sexual Harassment Policies Shape Gender Beliefs? An Exploration of the Moderating Effects of Norm Adherence and Gender. Social Science Research 42:1269–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinkler, Justine Eatenson, Li, Yan E., and Mollborn, Stefanie. 2007. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs. Social Psychology Quarterly 70:480–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuerkheimer, Deborah. 2012. Judging Sex. Cornell Law Review 97:14611504.Google ScholarPubMed
Uggen, Christopher, and Blackstone, Amy. 2004. Sexual Harassment as a Gendered Expression of Power. American Sociological Review 69:6492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United States Merit Systems Protection Board. 1995. Sexual Harassment in the Federal Workplace: Trends, Progress, Continuing Challenges. (accessed December 12, 2007).Google Scholar
Vaisey, Stephen. 2009. Motivation and Justification: A Dual‐Process Model of Culture in Action. American Journal of Sociology 114:16751715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vaisey, Stephen. 2014. The “Attitudinal Fallacy” Is a Fallacy: Why We Need Many Methods to Study Culture. Sociological Methods & Research 43:227–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vander Ven, Thomas. 2011. Getting Wasted: Why College Students Drink Too Much and Party So Hard. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Weiss, Karen G. 2010. Male Sexual Victimization: Examining Men's Experiences of Rape and Sexual Assault. Men and Masculinities 12:275–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiss, Karen G. 2013. Party School: Crime, Campus, and Community. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
Weiss, Karen G., and Colyer, Corey J. 2010. Roofies, Mickies and Cautionary Tales: Examining the Persistence of the “Date‐Rape Drug” Crime Narrative. Deviant Behavior 31:348–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, Lois A. 2001. Negotiating Masculinities in American Drinking Subcultures. The Journal of Men's Studies 9:371–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

“Kind of Natural, Kind of Wrong”: Young People's Beliefs about the Morality, Legality, and Normalcy of Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Settings
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

“Kind of Natural, Kind of Wrong”: Young People's Beliefs about the Morality, Legality, and Normalcy of Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Settings
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

“Kind of Natural, Kind of Wrong”: Young People's Beliefs about the Morality, Legality, and Normalcy of Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Settings
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *