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The Origin and Early History of the Writs of Entry

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 August 2010

Extract

The writs of entry are of interest chiefly because they offer an example of how, in the first century of its history, the common law grew by the creation of new writs. The first writs of entry were among the earliest writs to be invented after the legal reforms of Henry II. Further writs of entry were created after 1217. The distinctive feature of a writ of entry was that it challenged what plaintiff thought was the basis of defendant's claim to the land in dispute. A writ of entry alleged that defendant “had no entry” into the land other than by a transaction or taking that did not authorize him to hold the land.

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Copyright © the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois 2007

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References

1. G. J. Turner thought that in the first degree the writ did not have words of entry. G. J. Turner, introduction to Brevia Placitata, ed. Turner, G. J., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 66 (1947), lxxviGoogle Scholar. There were, however, two forms of the writ in the first degree: one with words of entry, 4 Rolls, Curia Regis, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google Scholar. Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarRolls, Curia Regis, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 204 (T 1206)Google Scholar; Rolls of the Justices in Eyre for Gloucestershire, Warwickshire, and Staffordshire [Shropshire] 1221, 1222, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 59 (194, No. 657 (1221); 13Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google Scholar Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 162 (P 1227); Roll of the Justices in Eyre at Bedford, 1227,” ed. Fowler, G. H., Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, vol. 3 (1916), 1206.Google Scholar, 223 (1227); 13 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., No. 2073 (P 1229), and one without words of entryGoogle Scholar, Early Registers of Writs, ed. Haas, E. De and Hall, G. D. G., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 87 (1970)., pp. 95 (cc 193), 288 (R 76); 11Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 680 (M 1223); 12Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–.Google Scholar, No. 1544 (M 1225). The two forms of writ might have been the reason for the two methods of counting degrees. See below, note 2.

2. There were in fact two methods of counting the degrees or classifying writs of entry in terms of the number of degrees. The writ of entry ad terminum qui preteriit provides the easiest example. One method is the method explained in the text and counts three degrees. On the other method the writ used by lessor against lessee is not counted as in a degree; there are then only two degrees. The matter is well explained by Milsom in S. F. C. Milsom, introduction to Novae Narrationes, ed. Shanks, E. and Milsom, S. F. C., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 80 (1963), cxxxvGoogle Scholar. One wonders whether the two forms of writ for a lessor to use against a lessee motivated two methods of counting degrees. See above, note 1. At any rate, whichever method one used, the writ could have only one per and cui.

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8. This article elaborates Palmer's point.

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10. See below, Part II.

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12. In novel disseisin the assize jury was to say whether defendant had disseised plaintiff unjustly and without judgment within the period of limitations.

13. In mort d'ancestor the assize jury was to say whether decedent had died seised and in fee within the period of limitations and whether plaintiff was his closest heir. The assize could be brought only by the decedent's son, daughter, brother, sister, niece or nephew.

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17. Novel disseisin: E.g., 2 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 76Google Scholar (M 1201); 2 Pleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967).Google Scholar, No. 870 (1202). Mort d'ancestor: 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 271Google Scholar (M 1200); The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., No. 360 (1202), No. 414 (1202); 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 144Google Scholar (M 1203), p. 219 (P 1203), p. 220 (P 1203); 3 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., pp. 287–88Google Scholar (P 1205). 18. 2 CRR, p. 76 (M 1201). 19. 2 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 144Google Scholar (H 1203). Plaintiff could object to defendant's voucher to warranty by saying that the warrantor had no entry other than by intrusion after the death of decedent. E.g., 2 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 219 (P 1203)Google Scholar.

20. Novel disseisin: E.g., 2 Pleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967).Google Scholar, No. 870 (1202). Mort d'ancestor: E.g., 2 Rotuli Curiae Regis, ed. Palgrave, F., 2 vols. (London: G. Eyre & A. Spottiswoode, 1835)., p. 43Google Scholar(M 1199); Staffordshire Suits extracted from the Plea Rolls, temp. Richard I and King John, ed. Wrottesley, G., Publications of the William Salt Archaeological Society, vol. 3 (1882), 25–, p. 52 (1199); 2Google ScholarPleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 675 (1201); 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922–., p. 219 (P 1203), p. 220 (P 1203)Google Scholar.

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22. 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google Scholar Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 313 (M 1200). For another example, see 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 214 (T 1200)Google Scholar.

23. Staffordshire Suits extracted from the Plea Rolls, temp. Richard I and King John, ed. Wrottesley, G., Publications of the William Salt Archaeological Society, vol. 3 (1882), 25–, p. 58 (1199); 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google Scholar Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 75 (M 1201); 2 Pleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 494 (1201), No. 544 (1201)Google Scholar; The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., No. 307 (1202); 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 180 (H 1203), No. 284 (T 1203); 3Google ScholarPleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 1007 (1204)Google Scholar. Tractatus de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Regni Anglie Qui Glanvilla Vocatur, ed. and trans. Hall, G. D. G. (Selden Society, 1965). stated a more general rule: there was no assize if the parties “are both of the same stock from which the contested inheritance was descended.”Google ScholarTractatus de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Regni Anglie Qui Glanvilla Vocatur, ed. and trans. Hall, G. D. G. (Selden Society, 1965). 155. The more general rule seems to have been applied where the parties were not only of the same stock but also of equal degrees of relationship to the decedent. Compare 2Google ScholarRotuli Curiae Regis, ed. Palgrave, F., 2 vols. (London: G. Eyre & A. Spottiswoode, 1835)., p. 48 (M 1199); 2Google ScholarPleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 531 (1201); and 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 191–92 (P 1203) (no assize, two nephews dispute uncle's inheritance) with 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 218, 223 (P 1203)Google Scholar, The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926). No. 1288 (1203) (assize proceeds, decedent is plaintiff's father and defendant's uncle and inheritance descended from their grandmother)Google Scholar.

24. Even though there was a writ of entry available plaintiff nevertheless could have reason either to bring a writ of right and plead a special mise against defendant's entry or to bring a writ of entry and plead into the right. The most important reason to bring a writ of right and plead a special mise about defendant's entry was that plaintiff based his claim on the seisin of an ancestor earlier than that allowed by the limitations period for writs of entry. Thus a plaintiff in 1200 brought a writ of right and pleaded a special mise that his great-grandfather's widow had been seised in the reign of Henry I and had leased the land for a term now ended. 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 158 (H 1200), 220 (T 1200). Other examples are 3Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 82 (M 1203), 242–43 (M 1204); 12Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 2344 (P 1226); 14Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 2298 (M 1232), 15Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, Nos. 176 (P 1233), 360 (M 1233)Google Scholar. There could also be tactical reasons for bringing a writ of right and pleading a special mise within the degrees. Widows brought writs of right and pleaded a cui in vita special mise when they claimed the land as their inheritance or grant before marriage. The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., No. 268, 1127 (1202), No. 1177 (1202); 6Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 41 (P 1210), 122 (M 1211), 233 (H 1212), 246 (P 1212), 293, 242 (T 1212)Google Scholar; Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 233 (H 1224). The writ of right would reinforce their claim that the land was their inheritance. Similarly, a plaintiff brought a writ of right and pleaded a special issue of in custodia to recover land granted away by his guardian. 8Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 169–70 (M 1219). Perhaps he thought that doing so would reenforce his claim that his father had been seised. In 1203 a widow brought a writ of right and pleaded a cui in vita special mise that could have fit the per-and-cui form of the writ. 3Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 59 (M 1203), 4Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 34–35 (T 1205). The per-and-cui form of the cui in vita writ might have been so recently invented that she was not aware that it was available. (The earliest of the per-and-cui form of the cui in vita writ I have found was in 1202Google Scholar. The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., Nos. 268, 484 [1202]). One plaintiff brought a writ of right, pleaded within the degrees, but then withdrew in order to bring a more useful writ (“utilitius breve”); apparently he thought that a writ of entry would, after all, be better. 4Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 268 (M 1206)Google Scholar.

25. Where the writ is used by the disseisee's heir Bracton de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, ed. Woodbine, G., trans. Thorne, S., 4 vols. (Selden Society and Harvard University Press, 1968, 1977). speaks of the disseisee being the plaintiff's father, uncle, or aunt “or other ancestor” (“vel alium antecessorem”), 3Google ScholarBracton de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, ed. Woodbine, G., trans. Thorne, S., 4 vols. (Selden Society and Harvard University Press, 1968, 1977). 159, but in the litigated cases plaintiff was the disseisee's first generation heirGoogle Scholar.

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37. See below, text and notes at notes 124–36.

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57. 14 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1459Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 572 (T 1231)Google Scholar; Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 697 (P 1232). Milsom has explored the difficulties of a widow proceeding against her husband's grantee in her own court, assuming that she had a court. Milsom, Legal Framework, 45–46, 91–93Google Scholar.

58. 1 Pleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 3157 = 2Google ScholarRotuli Curiae Regis, ed. Palgrave, F., 2 vols. (London: G. Eyre & A. Spottiswoode, 1835)., p. 168 (P 1200); 1Google ScholarPleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., pp. 19, 74–76; Milsom, Legal Framework, 99 and 99, n.3Google Scholar.

59. The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., Nos. 268, 484 (1202). The early appearance of the per and cui form is strong evidence for the early invention of the writ. Whether the writ was readily available is another questionGoogle Scholar.

60. Tractatus de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Regni Anglie Qui Glanvilla Vocatur, ed. and trans. Hall, G. D. G. (Selden Society, 1965). 82. Roman law knew a similar rule: a tutor or guardian could not alienate the property of his wardGoogle Scholar.Buckland, W. W., A Textbook of Roman Law from Augustus to Justinian, 3d ed., rev. Stein, Peter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963), 154Google Scholar.

61. Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 182 (T 1200). Although the writ was probably invented with a lord's wardship of his tenant's underage children in mind, the writ also applied to grants made by guardians in other custodial arrangements. There are cases in which women put themselves and their land, received as inheritance or as a grant with which to marry, under the protection of a male relative. 1Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 309 (M 1200), 378 (H 1201); 3Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 82 (M 1203) (writ of right with special issue), pp. 242–43 (M 1204) (writ of right with special issue)Google Scholar; The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926). & Worcs., No. 636 (1219)Google Scholar; Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 342 (1220). A variation of this type of case was where a father gave his daughter with land as her maritagium to the father of her future husband. 12Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, Nos. 828 (M 1225), 1406 (M 1225), 1860 (H 1226), 2511 (P 1226) (related litigation by a writ of cui in vita is recorded at 15Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 574 [M 1233]); 17Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 2145 (P 1243). The daughter's future father-in-law served as her guardian until she married his son and they came of age. There are also cases brought by a woman's heir and the allegation is that her husband granted the land while he had plaintiff in his guardianship. 1Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 419 (P 1201); 9Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 16–17 (T 1220)Google Scholar; The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926). & Worcs., No. 1011 (1221)Google Scholar; The Roll and Writ File of the Berkshire Eyre of 1248, ed. Clanchy, M. T., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 90 (19721973)., No. 452 (1248). In these cases, plaintiff might have been using the writ in custodia because sur cui in vita was not available. See below text and notes at notes 164–69. A father might commit his son to the wardship of someone who, according to the son, retained the land after the son came of age. 3Google ScholarPleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 855 (1203); 13Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 383 (T 1227)Google Scholar.

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65. Sutherland, , Novel Disseisin, 146Google Scholar. In the 1220s there were some who began to take the view that when a guardian granted his ward's land both the guardian and his grantee disseised the ward and could be sued in novel disseisin. Ibid. This view was adopted in Chapter 48 of the statute of Westminster I (1275) and in Chapter 25 of the statute of Westminster II (1285). 1 Statutes of the Realm, ed. Luders, A. and others, 10 vols. (London, 18101828)Google Scholar. Statutes of the Realm, ed. Luders, A. and othe 38, 84–85Google Scholar.

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75. 19 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1528 (H 1250); KB 26/141, m.17d (T 1250); KB 26/148, m.17d (M 1253); KB 26/148, m.34d (M 1253)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/615, m.25d (Northamptonshire, 1253)Google Scholar; The Shropshire Eyre Roll of 1256, ed. Harding, A., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 96 (1980)., No. 28 (1256). 19Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 873 (M 1249) might be a case brought on the new writ, but mention of wardship suggests that plaintiff used the older writGoogle Scholar.

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77. 2 Pleas before the King or His Justices, ed. Stenton, D., 4 vols., Publications of the Selden Society, vols. 67, 68, 83, 84 (1948, 1949, 1966, 1967)., No. 675 (1201); 2Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 166–67 (H 1203), p. 219 (P 1203), p. 220 (P 1203); 4Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 261 (M 1206), p. 292 (M 1206)Google Scholar.

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79. Id. For a later example of plaintiff to a writ in custodia described as his ancestor's (his uncle's) closest heir, see 17 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 514 (M 1242)Google Scholar.

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83. 2 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 180 (H 1203) (mort d'ancestor against the grantee of the lord's grantee denied because defendant's vouchee was plaintiff's sister; plaintiff later recovers on writ of right, 3Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 85–86, 99 [H 1204], 277–78 [P 1205]); 11Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 952 (M 1223) (writ of entry between siblings); 12Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, Nos. 153 (M 1225), 1727 (H 1226) (writ of entry between siblings)Google Scholar.

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121. Ibid.

122. Ibid.

123. A plaintiff who had earlier brought a writ of right and lost could not relitigate his claim by a possessory assize. 2 Rotuli Curiae Regis, ed. Palgrave, F., 2 vols. (London: G. Eyre & A. 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139. Ibid.

140. Ibid., 319.

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159. Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 1215 (1236)Google Scholar.

160. 17 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1873 (P 1243)Google Scholar; The Roll and Writ File of the Berkshire Eyre of 1248, ed. Clanchy, M. T., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 90 (19721973)., No. 226 (1248)Google Scholar.

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162. E.g., The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., No. 215 (1202); 3Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 12 (M 1203); 6Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 218 (H 1212); 7Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 319 (H 1215); 14Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 124 (T 1230); 17Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1471 (H 1243)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/162, m.32 (H 1259)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/171, m.51 (M 1261)Google Scholar.

163. E.g., Rolls of the Justices in Eyre for Yorkshire, 1218– 1219, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 56 (1937)., No. 270 (1218–19); 10Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 64 (P 1221)Google Scholar; Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 1981 (1221); 13Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 299 (T 1227)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/1042, m.11d (Yorkshire, 1231)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/951A, m.14 (Warwickshire, 1232); JUST/867, m.11 (Surrey, 1241)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/143, m.31d (M 1250)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/300C, m.9d (Hereford, 1255)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/160, m.43d (M 1258)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/82, m.16d (Cambridgeshire, 1261). A widow could also use a writ in the per-and-cui form against the widow of her husband's granteeGoogle Scholar. Rolls of the Justices in Eyre for Yorkshire, 1218– 1219, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 56 (1937)., No. 153 (1218–19); 11Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1645 (T 1224)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/361, m.8d (Kent, 1255). In a couple of cases, plaintiff used a writ with only a per against the heir of her husband's granteeGoogle Scholar. The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926). & Worcs., Nos. 521, 624, 629 (1218–19); 12Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1560 (M 1225). Similarly, in one case plaintiff used a writ in the per against the widow of the entrant. 10Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 306–7Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 203 (T 1222)Google Scholar.

164. The remainder of the paragraph in the text is based on Biancalana, The Fee Tail, 58–63.

165. The argument for such a limitation had been made as early as 1200. 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 330–31 (M 1200)Google Scholar.

166. Roll of the Justices in Eyre at Bedford, 1202,” ed. Fowler, G. H., Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, vol. 1 (1913), 133247., No. 101 (1202)Google Scholar; Rolls of the Justices in Eyre for Yorkshire, 1218– 1219, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 56 (1937)., Nos. 167, 1132 (1218–19)Google Scholar.

167. One example is 17 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1716 (H 1243). For a case in which the woman's heir contests by writ of entry the woman's grant of her entailed maritagium, see 14Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 1067Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 487 (H 1231)Google Scholar.

168. Other remedies were, however, available. See Biancalana, , The Fee Tail, 6263Google Scholar.

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171. 1 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 419 (P 1201); 4Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 311 (M 1206)Google Scholar; The Earliest Lincolnshire Assize Rolls 1202–1209, ed. Stenton, D., Publications of the Lincolnshire Record Society, vol. 22 (1926)., No. 1395 (1202)Google Scholar; Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 1182 (T 1220); 13Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 2178 (P 1229); 16Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 207 (P 1242)Google Scholar.

172. 11 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, Nos. 1461 (T 1224), 2040Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 893 (M 1224) (plaintiff's brother)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/1042, m.28 (Yorkshire, 1231) (plaintiff's father)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/166, m.8 (P 1262) (plaintiff's brother)Google Scholar.

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175. 16 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 245 (H 1238), No. 1757 (T 1241); 19Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 2236 (P 1250)Google Scholar.

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177. 13 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 668 (P 1228)Google Scholar.

178. 3 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, p. 114 (P 1204); 4Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, pp. 60 (H 1206), 123, 141 (P 1206), 221 (M 1206); 13Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, Nos. 1779 (P 1229), 2692 (H 1230), 14Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 566Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. Clay, 1887)., No. 440 (M 1230)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/695, m.19d (Oxfordshire, 1241)Google Scholar; The Roll and Writ File of the Berkshire Eyre of 1248, ed. Clanchy, M. T., Publications of the Selden Society, vol. 90 (19721973)., No. 452 (1248); 19Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 948 (M 1249), No. 2278 (P 1250)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/141, m.1d (T 1250)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/143, m.30 (M 1250)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/149, m.7 (T1253)Google Scholar; Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/148, m.22 (M 1253)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/275, m.21d (Gloucestershire, 1268–69)Google Scholar.

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180. Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/275, m.16d (Gloucestershire, 1268–69) (plaintiff is sister of infant grantor)Google Scholar.

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182. Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/233, m.8 (Essex, 1254)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/361, m.1 (Kent, 1255)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/363, m.15 (Kent, 1262–63)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/363, m.26d (Kent, 1262–63)Google Scholar.

183. Curia Regis Rolls, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, National Archives/165, m.18 (P 1260) (plaintiff is infant's brother)Google Scholar; Rolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National ArchivesGoogle ScholarRolls of Itinerant Justices on Eyre, National Archives/275, m.46d (Gloucestershire, 1268–69) (plaintiff is infant's sister)Google Scholar.

184. Conveyance by villein: 12 Curia Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 19 vols. 1922Google ScholarCuria Regis Rolls, prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy, No. 465Google Scholar, Bracton's Note Book, ed. Maitland, F. W., 3 vols. (London: C. J. 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