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International Criminal Law's Millennium of Forgotten History

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2016


At the close of World War II (WWII), Winston Churchill suggested summarily executing the remaining Nazi leadership. Franklin Delano Roosevelt disagreed, insisting on prosecuting them in an international military tribunal. This is considered the “birth” of International Criminal Law (ICL), following a consensus that “[t]he Nazi atrocities gave rise to the idea that some crimes are so grave as to concern the international community as a whole.” A few earlier instances of penal action against violators of the laws of war are acknowledged, but they are dismissed as unrelated to current ICL, because (presumably) these cases are sporadic domestic legal actions that lack a common doctrine.

Copyright © the American Society for Legal History, Inc. 2016 

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1. For example, Ryan, Allan A., “Nuremberg's Contributions to International Law,Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 30 (2007): 5966Google Scholar, 89.

2. DeGuzman, Margaret M., “How Serious Are International Crimes? The Gravity Problem in International Criminal Law,Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 51 (2012–13): 19Google Scholar.

3. For example, M. Cherif Bassiouni, Introduction to International Criminal Law (Dordrecht: Martinus–Nijhoff, 2012), 28–29, 138; and Ronald C. Slye and Beth Van-Schaack, International Criminal Law: The Essentials (New York: Aspen Publishers, 2008), 18–26.

4. Ibid.

5. David McKay and Hersch Lauterpacht, Oppenheim on International Law, 2 vols. (London: Longmans, 1955), 2:609 (emphasis added). See also Markus Dubber and Tatjana Hörnle, Criminal Law: A Comparative Approach (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 153.

6. See note 143 and accompanying text.

7. For example, Peace Treaty between England and the Netherlands, art. 8 (July 31, 1667).

8. For example, Matthew Sutcliffe, The Practice, Proceedings, and Lawes of Armes (London: Christopher Baker, 1593), 3.

9. “Draft Convention on Piracy,” American Journal of International Law 26 (Supplement, 1932): 853, 873.

10. Dubber and Hörnle, Criminal Law, 153.

11. Bassiouni, International Criminal Law, 1047.

12. Archibald Bower, History of the Popes, 7 vols. (Philadelphia: Griffith and Simon,1845), 3:14 (emphasis added).

13. Pasquale Villari, trans. Linda Vilari The Two First Centuries of Florentine History, (London: Fisher Unwin, 1894), 248.

14. Slye and Van-Schaack, Essentials, 19.

15. Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I, 2 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010 reprint), 2:640 n.243 (emphasis added).

16. Maurice Keen, “Treason Trials under the Law of Arms,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (1962): 98–103.

17. See Bassiouni, International Criminal Law, 416 (discussing such views).

18. Hans Knebels, “des Kaplans am Münster zu Basel, Tagebuch. Sept. 1473–Juni 1476,” [The Basel Cathedral Chaplain, Diary (Sept. 1473–June 1476)] in Die Basler Chroniken: Herausgegeben von der Historischen und Antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Basel, [The Basler Chronicles: Issued by the Historical and Antiquarian Society of Basel] 8 vols., ed. Wilhelm Vischer and Heinrich Boos (Leipzig: Hirtzel, 1880), 2:83–84 (84: report from May 8, 1474, on the sentencing to death of von-Hagenbach: “. . .optavit mortem illius tyranni. . .”).

19. Brincat, Shannon, “Death to Tyrants: Self-Defence, Human Rights and Tyrannicide–Part II,Journal of International Political Theory 5 (2009): 78CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Carl Schmitt, trans. Gary L. Ulmen The Nomos of the Earth in The International Law of the Jus Publicum Europaeum, (New York: Telos Press, 2003), 64–65.

20. Congress of Vienna, Declaration of the Powers against Napoleon (March 13, 1815), in British and Foreign State Papers: 1814–15 (London: James Ridgway and Sons, 1839), 663 (emphasis added).

21. Letter from October 1, 1815, reproduced in Horace Twiss, The Public and Private Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon with Selection from His Correspondence, 3 vols. (London: J. Murray, 1844), 1:413 (emphasis added).

22. J. Christopher Herold, The Age of Napoleon (New York: Mariner Books, 2002), 415.

23. 56 Geo. III, c. 22 (1816) (UK) (emphasis added).

24. Cowles, Willard B., “Universality of Jurisdiction over War Crimes,California Law Review 33 (1945): 194CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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26. Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, American State Trials (1865), 671.

27. Ibid., 785 (emphasis added).

28. Reproduced in Thomas L. Wilson, Sufferings Endured for a Free Government (Washington, DC: Thomas Wilson, 1864), 282.

29. Reproduced in Charles F. Horne, ed. Source Records of the Great War, 7 vols., (New York: National Alumni, 1923), 5:109–10 (emphasis added).

30. David Lloyd George, Memoirs of the Peace Conference, 2 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1939) 1:56 (emphasis added).

31. Ibid., 1:61.

32. Richard Overy, “The Nuremberg Trials: International Law in the Making,” in From Nuremberg to The Hague, ed. Philippe Sands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 3–4.

33. Note by Churchill (November 9, 1943), cited in Arieh Kochavi, Prelude to Nuremberg (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 73–74 (emphasis added).

34. Overy, “Nuremberg Trials,” 3–4.

35. Memorandum by the Office of the United States Representative to the U.N. War Crimes Commission, “Trial of War Criminal by Mixed Inter-Allied Military Tribunals,” page 4 (August 31, 1944) (emphasis added), (last accessed 28 March 2016).

36. The Antelope, 23 US (1825), 123. See also Liivoja, Rain, “The Criminal Jurisdiction of States: A Theoretical Primer,NoFo 7 (2010): 31Google Scholar.

37. Morten Bergsmo and LING Yan, “On State Sovereignty and Individual Criminal Responsibility for Core International Crimes,” in State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law, ed. Morten Bergsmo and LING Yan (Beijing: Torkel-Opsahl EPublisher, 2012), 4.

38. Ibid.

39. Hathaway, Oona and Shapiro, Scott, “Outcasting: Enforcement in Domestic and International Law,Yale Law Journal 121 (2011): 258Google Scholar.

40. Ibid., 282–90.

41. Hathaway and Shapiro, “Enforcement,” 299; and Anderson, Stanley, “Human Rights and the Structure of International Law,New-York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law 12 (1991): 25Google Scholar.

42. Grant v. Allen, 1987 JC 71 (Scot.).

43. Zhu Lijiang, The Principle of Complementarity in the Rome Statute and Universal Jurisdiction of States (LLM Thesis, University of Lund, 2005), 15.

44. Maurice Keen, The Outlaws of Medieval Legend (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961), 9–10.

45. Pollock, Maitland, History of English Law, 2:328; Giorgio Agamben, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 63.

46. John M. Goodenow, Historical Sketches of the Principles and Maxims of American Jurisprudence (Steubenville: James Wilson, 1819), 3. See also, James Fitzjames Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1883), 2:62–63.

47. Bassiouni, M. Cherif, “Universal Jurisdiction for International Crimes: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Practice,Virginia Journal of International Law 42 (2001): 99Google Scholar; and Dworkin, Ronald, “A New Philosophy for International Law,Philosophy and Public Affairs 41 (2013): 34CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48. Hathaway and Shapiro, “Enforcement,” 257.

49. Hall, Stephen, “The Persistent Spectre: Natural, Law, International Order and the Limits of Legal Positivism,European Journal of International Law 12 (2001): 271CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

50. John Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (London: J. Murray, 1832), 208. See also, Stephen, Criminal Law of England, 2:62–63.

51. See Tim Hillier, Sourcebook on Public International Law (London: Cavendish Publishing, 1998), 35.

52. Randall Lesaffer, “International Law and Its History: The Story of an Unrequited Love,” in Time, History and International Law, ed. Matthew Craven, Malgosia Fitzmaurice, and Maria Vogiatzi (Leiden: Martinus-Nijhoff, 2007), 34.

53. Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992), 24–32.

54. Andrew Altman, Critical Legal Studies: A Liberal Critique (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), 152.

55. Samuel Moyn, “Of Deserts and Promised Lands: The Dream of Global Justice,” The Nation (February 29, 2012).

56. Ibid.

57. Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 39–38.

58. Philip Alston, “Book Review: Does the Past Matter? On the Origins of Human Rights,” Harvard Law Review 126 (2013): 2079.

59. Bourdieu, Pierre, “The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field,Hasting Law Journal 38 (1987): 816Google Scholar.

60. Martinez, Jenny S., “Human Rights and History,Harvard Law Review 126 (2013): 237Google Scholar.

61. Annette Freyberg-Inan, What Moves Man (Albany: Sunny Press, 2012), 111–12.

62. Orford, Anne, “On International Legal Method,London Review of International Law 1 (2013): 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

63. Bourdieu, “Force of Law,” 834–50.

64. For example, Theodor Meron, Bloody Constraint: War and Chivalry in Shakespeare (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 23; and Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 37.

65. Anne Orford, “The Past as Law or History: The Relevance of Imperialism for Modern International Law” (New York University: International Law and Justice Working Papers, 2012), 1–3 (discussing such positions).

66. Ibid.

67. Pitts, Jennifer, “Empire and Legal Universalisms in the Eighteenth Century,American Historical Review 117 (2012): 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Liliana Obregón, “The Civilized and the Uncivilized,” in The Oxford Handbook of The History of International Law, ed. Bardo Fassbender and Anne Peters (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 930.

68. Frederick H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle-Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 7–8. Presumably, during Early Modern Times, “infidels” ceased to be a category of enemies against whom jus ad bellum permitted waging total war, as a result of the secularization of international law. For a source indicating that that was the case, see, for example, In re Le Louis, 165 E.R. 1464, 1475 (1817) (Eng.) (Justice W. Scott) (regarding as obsolete “[a]n ancient authority [which] represent[ed] infidels” as being like “pirates … enemies of every country, and at all times”). However, the reality is that some continued to support that doctrine long after one might tend to presume. See, for example, Hew Strachan, “A General Typology of Transcultural Wars: The Modern-Ages,” in Transcultural Wars: From the Middle-Ages to the 21st Century, ed. Hans-Henning Kortum (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2006), 87–89; Armand Du Payrat, Prisonnier de guerre dans la guerre continentale [Prisoners of War in Continental War] (Paris: Librairie nouvelle de droit et de jurisprudence, 1910), 207; Austin Farrer, “Introduction,” in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Theodicy, ed. Austin Farrer, trans. E.M. Huggard (London: Routledge, 1951), 10; and James Anson Farrer, Military Manners and Customs: The Laws and Observances of Warfare in Ancient and Modern Times (London: Chatto & Windus, 1885), 170.

69. Bernhard R. Kroener, “Antichrist, Archenemy, Disturber of the Peace: Forms and Means of Violent Conflicts in the Early Modern Ages,” in Transcultural Wars, 61, 80; Drake, James, “Restraining Atrocity: The Conduct of King Philip's War,New England Quarterly 70 (1997): 34CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stephen Morillo, “A General Typology of Transcultural Wars: The Early Middle Ages and Beyond,” in Transcultural Wars, 36, 41; and Matthew Strickland, “Rules of War or War Without Rules? Some Reflections on Conduct and the Treatment of Non-Combatants in Medieval Transcultural Wars,” in Transcultural Wars, 109, 128, 131–32, 137–39.

70. For example, José Enrique López, “Institutions on the Castalian–Granadan Border, 1369–1482,” in Medieval Frontier Societies, ed. Robert Bartlett and Angus Mackay (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989):127–50. See also the seventeenth and eighteenth century examples mentioned in note 513.

71. Koskenniemi, Martti, “Histories of International Law: Dealing with Eurocentrism,” Rg 19 (2011): 171Google Scholar; Martin van Creveld, “A Tale of Two Wars,” in Transcultural Wars, 141; Krzysztof Wawrzyniak, Ottoman-Polish Relations in the Sixteenth Century (MA Thesis, Bilkent University, 2003), 35. See also sources mentioned in note 69.

72. Pitts, “Empire and Legal Universalism,” 94–95.

73. Ibid.

74. Although, usually, universalist stances went hand in hand with opposition to the waging of total war against non-Christians/Europeans/Westerners, there was not necessarily a link between the two. The doctrine that justified waging total war against non-Christians/Europeans/Westerners was actually advanced by some based on the position that regarded (European) international law as universally applicable and by others based on a position that regarded that law as only applicable to Christians/Europeans/Westerners. In accordance with the former position, waging total war was justified in some sources as a punitive action against such enemies for not recognizing their duty to act in accordance with that law, and, therefore, for systematically violating it. In accordance with the latter position, such a policy was justified based on the presumed inapplicability of international law to “uncivilized” nations. The difference between the two bases of justifications was of great significance in the context of ICL. Supporters of the latter justification simply assumed that international law (including ICL) was inapplicable in such conflicts. Supporters of the former justification, by contrast, assumed that only the punishing side (i.e., the Christians/Europeans/Westerners) was unconstrained by international law (and, therefore, nothing that soldiers of that side committed could have been considered a war crime). However, they further assumed that the “punished” side was still duty bound by international law (i.e., that the violations already committed do not serve as license for the commission of additional violations of international law by the “punished”). Therefore, if a member of the “punished” was captured alive, the “just” side was able to choose between extrajudicially executing that member, or putting him on trial for various violations of jus in bello (or of other international law) he committed. Such trials, based on such a legal position, were occasionally conducted. See, Colby, Elbridge, “How to Fight Savage Tribes,American Journal of International Law 21 (1927): 285–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar (briefly mentioning both positions).

75. See notes 482–83, 490, and accompanying text.

76. Compare: Schmitt, Nomos of the Earth, 226 (suggesting the period between 1875 and the end of WWI); Liliana Obregón, “The Civilized and the Uncivilized,” 925 (suggesting the two world wars); Bowden, Brett, “The Colonial Origins of International Law, European Expansion and the Classical Standard of Civilization,Journal of the History of International Law 7 (2005): 2122CrossRefGoogle Scholar (suggesting that it occurred at the end of WWII following that war's horrors); James Thuo Gathii, “Africa,” in Oxford Handbook, 413–15 (discussing views that regard the creation of the United Nations as the moment in which the “new,” inclusive international law came into being); and Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 510–17 (suggesting the 1960s).

77. Brett Bowden, “Civilization and Savagery,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to Modern Warfare, eds. John Buckley and George Kassimeris (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), 193; and Gerrit Gong, The Standard of “Civilization” in International Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), 14–15.

78. Strachan, “A General Typology,” 95, 101. See also, Frédéric Mégret, “From ‘Savages’ to ‘Unlawful Combatants’: A Postcolonial Look at International Law's ‘Other’,” in International Law and its Others, ed. Anne Orford (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 266 (arguing that residual influences of this doctrine still exist).

79. Strachan, “A General Typology,” 95–101. See also Wilhelm Grewe, The Epochs of International Law, trans. Michael Byers (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GMBH & Co., 2000), 263; Wright, Quincy, “The Bombardment of Damascus,American Journal of International Law 20 (1926), 266CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and most of the conflicts mentioned in the text accompanying notes 408–14.

80. Wright, “The Bombardment of Damascus,” 266; Colby, “How to Fight Savage Tribes,” 279–88; Kaiser Wilhelm II, “Hun Speech” (1900) (last accessed, March 28, 2016); United Kingdom War Office, Manual of Military Law (London: H.M.S.O., 1914), 235; Vaget, Detlev, “International Law in the Third Reich,American Journal of International Law 84 (1990): 696Google Scholar; and Strachan, “A General Typology,” 95, 101.

81. See Drake, “Restraining Atrocity,” 34; and Strickland, “Rules of War”, 131–32.

82. Drake, “Restraining Atrocity,” 34; Strickland, “Rules of War”, 128–37; Morillo, “A General Typology,” 36, 41; Michael Prestwich, “Transcultural Warfare: The Later Middle-Ages,” in Transcultural Wars, 43–44, 56; Yvonne Friedman, “Did Laws of War Exist in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem?,” in De Sion exibit lex et verbum domini de Hierusalem: Essays on Medieval Law, Liturgy and Literature in Honour of Amnon Linder, ed. Yitzhak Hen 81 (Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2001), 129; and M. Cherif Bassiouni, A Manual on International Humanitarian Law and Arms Control Agreements (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 2000), 9–10.

83. Morillo, “A General Typology,” 32 n. 9; Kroener, “Antichrist, Archenemy, Disturber of the Peace,” 59; and Strachan, “A General Typology,” 85–95.

84. Grewe, The Epochs of International Law, 263; Mégret, “From ‘Savages’ to ‘Unlawful Combatants’,” 287.

85. See, for example, Kinji Akashi, “Japan-Europe,” in The Oxford Handbook, 738–41 (mentioning changes in Japan's attitude toward the laws of war of European origin).

86. See, Jochnick, Chris and Normand, Roger, “The Legitimation of Violence: A Critical History of the Laws of War,Harvard International Law Journal 35 (1994): 5960Google Scholar (criticizing this narrative).

87. Mégret, “From ‘Savages’ to ‘Unlawful Combatants’,” 287; Morillo, “A General Typology,” 32 n. 9; Kroener, “Antichrist, Archenemy, Disturber of the Peace,” 59; and Strachan, “A General Typology,” 85–95. See also, Lorca, Arnulf Becker, “Universal International Law: Nineteenth-Century Histories of Imposition and Appropriations,Harvard International Law Journal 51 (2010): 481Google Scholar.

88. Strachan, “A General Typology,” 103.

89. Ibid., 86. See also, Morillo, “A General Typology,” 32 n. 9.

90. Geoffrey Parker, Empire, War and Faith in Early Modern Europe (London: Penguin Press, 2002), 167–68.

91. Luigi Nuzzo and Miloš Vec, “The Birth of International Law as a Legal Discipline,” in Constructing International Law: The Birth of a Discipline, ed. Luigi Nuzzo and Miloš Vec (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2012): XII, IX.

92. Martti Koskenniemi, “Legal Fragmentation(s): An Essay on Fluidity and Form,” in Soziologische Jurisprudenz, ed. Graf-Peter Calliess, Andreas Fischer-Lescano, Dan Wielsch and Peer Zumbansen (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009), 802–5.

93. Greenberg, Janelle and Sechler, Michael J., “Constitutionalism Ancient and Early Modern: The Contributions of Roman Law, Canon Law, and English Common Law,Cardozo Law Journal 34 (2012–13): 1026–43Google Scholar; Hall, “The Persistent Spectre,” 271; Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 37; and Russell, The Just War, passim.

94. Duncan Kennedy, “Legal History: Introduction,” (2012), (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

95. For example, Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer, 179–209, 274–302.

96. Terry Gill, “Chivalry: A Principle of the Law of Armed-Conflict?” in Armed-Conflict and International Law, ed. Mariëlle Matthee, Brigit Toebes, and Marcel Brus (The Hague: Asser Press, 2013), 36–37.

97. See Section 5c.

98. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 340 n.37; and Georges Duby, The Chivalrous Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 16.

99. Robert Stacey, “The Age of Chivalry,” in The Laws of War, ed. George Andreopoulos and Mark Shulman (New-Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), 38. See also David Whetham, Just Wars and Moral Victories (Leiden: Brill, 2009), 52.

100. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 167–68.

101. Ibid., 159.

102. Morillo, “A General Typology,” 32 n. 9.

103. Strachan, “A General Typology,” 85.

104. Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 36.

105. Ibid., 37.

106. Javier Treviño, The Sociology of Law (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2001), 5–6.

107. Andrei Marmor, “The Nature of Law,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (2011), (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

108. See, Ruth Gavison, “Natural Law, Positivism and the Limits of Jurisprudence,” Yale Law Journal 91 (1982): 1279.

109. Golanski, Alani, “Nonmoral Theoretical Disagreement in Law,Mitchell/Hamline Law Review 42 (forthcoming, 2016)Google Scholar, (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

110. Morillo, “A General Typology,” 30.

111. Perez, Oren, “Fuzzy Law: A Theory of Quasi-Legal Systems,Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 28 (2015): 14CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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113. See Brian Bix, “On Description and Legal Reasoning,” in Rules and Reasoning, ed. Linda Meyer (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999), 9–10 (discussing the related issue of stable legal reform).

114. Bassiouni, International Criminal Law, 28–29, 138; and Slye and Van-Schaack, Essentials, 18–26.

115. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:320.

116. Carlo Calisse, A History of Italian Law, 2 vols. (Washington: Beard Books, reprint 2001) 1:301; and Keen, Outlaws, 9–10.

117. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:328.

118. Whetham, Just Wars, 75; and Ludwig Von-Bar, trans. Thomas Sydney Bell, A History of Continental Criminal Law, (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1916), 62–63.

119. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:338–49, 2:670 n.129.

120. John H. Wigmore, “Editorial Preface” to Von-Bar, Continental Criminal Law, xxx; and Pollock, Frederick, “The King's Peace in the Middle-Ages,Harvard Law Review 13 (1899): 177–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

121. Whetham, Just Wars, 75–76.

122. Ibid., 84.

123. Ibid., 75–76, 84–86.

124. Von-Bar, Continental Criminal Law, 61–67, 112, 142, 300.

125. Andrew Stephenson, A History of Roman Law (Boston: Rothman & Company, 1912), 11; Edelstein, Dan, “War and Terror: The Law of Nations from Grotius to the French Revolution,French Historical Studies 31 (2008): 232CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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127. Edelstein, “Hostis,” 61–63; and Russell, The Just War, 7–8.

128. Russell, The Just War, 7–8.

129. Justinian Code, III, title 27; Hugo Grotius, trans. W. Kelsey, De Jure Belli Ac Pacis Libri Tres, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1925), 487; and Thomas Heebøll–Holm, Ports, Piracy and Maritime War, Piracy in the English Channel and the Atlantic, c.1280–c.1330 (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 235.

130. Russell, The Just War, 40; and Justinian Code, XLVII, titles 2.2–2.13.

131. Judy E. Gaughan, Murder Was Not a Crime: Homicide and Power in the Roman Republic (Austin: University of Texas, 2010), 108–10, 127–29; and Chilton, C.W., “The Roman Law of Treason under the Early Principate,Journal of Roman Studies 45 (1955): 7475CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

132. Edelstein, “Hostis,” 62–63.

133. Russell, The Just War, 7–19, 45; and Edelstein, “Hostis,” 62–63.

134. Jeffery, Clarence Ray, “The Development of Crime in Early English Society,Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 47 (1956–57): 654–65Google Scholar.

135. Whetham, Just Wars, 37–45; and Russell, The Just War, 10–22, 40–41.

136. Duby, The Chivalrous Society, 15–46.

137. Maurice Keen, The Laws of War in the Late Middle-Ages (London: Routledge, 1965), 14.

138. Schmitt, Nomos of the Earth, 58–65.

139. Greenberg and Sechler, “Constitutionalism,” 1026–30.

140. Geoffrey Hosking, Trust: A History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 70–72; and Duby, The Chivalrous Society, 55–57, 124–26.

141. Duby, The Chivalrous Society, 49, 53; John Fry, A Short History of the Church of Christ (London: James Duncan, 1825), 197.

142. Keen, Laws,of War 8–19; and Russell, The Just War, 45.

143. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:300; and Calisse, Italian Law, 2:311. Also see notes 116, 124, and 133, and accompanying text. The term “public enemy” (and even “enemy”) was used only in some sources as a synonym of “outlaw,” whereas in others it was used to refer to legitimate belligerents; compare, Charles’ case (note 333) with Butler's case (above note 61). These contradictory uses probably resulted from a misunderstanding by some jurists of certain Roman treason-related doctrines; see Gil Anidjar, The Jew, the Arab: A History of the Enemy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 180 n.91.

144. Schmitt, Nomos of the Earth, 58–65.

145. Beaulac, Stéphane, “The Westphalian Model in Defining International Law: Challenging the Myth,Australian Journal of Legal History 8 (2004): 182–83Google Scholar.

146. Duby, The Chivalrous Society, 29–57; Von-Bar, Continental Criminal Law, 66–67, 142–43; and Greenberg and Sechler, “Constitutionalism,” 1026–31.

147. Mia Korpiola, “People of Sweden Shall Have Peace: Peace Legislation and Royal Power in Later Medieval Sweden,” in Expectations of the Law in the Middle-Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2001), 35–38, 48–50; Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:328–52, 2:622–23 n.66; and Dennis Howard Green, Language and History in the Early Germanic World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 43.

148. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:330–51.

149. Ibid.; and Korpiola, “People of Sweden,” 35–38, 48–50.

150. Keen, Laws of War, 23–44.

151. Augustus Henry Frazer Lefroy, “By the Way,” Canadian Law Times 38 (1918): 546–47.

152. For example, Everette Don Stumbaugh, Jurisdiction to Try Individuals for Violations of the Law of War: Theory and Practice (LLM thesis, George Washington University, 1973), 7.

153. Keen, Laws of War, 30–44; and Stumbaugh, Jurisdiction to Try Individuals, 7–8.

154. Agamben's thesis relies not only on the Roman homo sacer doctrine but also on other similar doctrines such as the Germanic outlawry doctrine, see, Agamben, Homo Sacer, 63.

155. Judith Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence (London: Verso, 2006), 68.

156. Brännström, Leila, “How I learned to Stop Worrying and Use the Legal Argument: A Critique of Giorgio Agamben's Conception of Law,NoFo 5 (2008): 23Google Scholar.

157. See notes 59–61 and accompanying text.

158. Chong, Jane Y., “Targeting the Twenty-First-Century Outlaw,Yale Law Journal 122 (2012), 743Google Scholar; and Eburn, Michael, “Outlawry in Colonial Australia: The Felons Apprehension Acts 1865–1899,ANZLH E-Journal (2005), 93Google Scholar.

159. Different contemporary courts have further asserted that even judicial outlawry has no place in modern law, which one might interpret as signifying another rupture; Hirst v UK, ECrHR (2005); and Cross v Kirkby (2000) EWCA Civ (2000) (UK).

160. William Renwick Riddell, “Introduction,” in A History of Continental Criminal Procedure, ed. Adhémar Esmein, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1913), xliii.

161. Von-Bar, Continental Criminal Law, 291–93, 503–11. In few domestic systems, outlawry-decreed extrajudicial killing remained legal until recently; see Eburn, “Outlawry in Colonial Australia,” 85 (discussing New South Wales); and Chong, “Twenty-First-Century Outlaw,” 749–50 (discussing North Carolina).

162. See Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949.

163. Dubber and Hörnle, Criminal Law, 153.

164. See Hosking, Trust: A History, 127–28; Russell, The Just War, 259–69, 295–304; and Ancel, Marc, “The Collection of European Penal Codes and the Study of Comparative Law,University of Pennsylvania Law Review 106 (1958): 342CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

165. Ancel, “European Penal Codes,” 342.

166. Jonathan Elliot, American Diplomatic Code, 2 vols. (Washington, DC: Jonathan Elliot, 1834), 2:402.

167. For example, Ordinary's Account, Old Bailey (June 16, 1731) (England), (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

168. Fedor Fedorovich Martens, Traité de Droit International, 3 vols. (Paris: Chevalier-Marescq et Cie, 1883–87), 3:7–9; Voltaire, trans. W. Dugdale, The Philosophical Dictionary (London: Dugdale, 1843), 263.

169. Duby, The Chivalrous Society, 57, 124–26; and English sources cited in notes 166–67.

170. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, 263.

171. See, for example, In re Piracy Jure Gentium (1934) A.C. 586, 589–91.

172. Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction”, 99.

173. Martens, Traité de Droit International, 3:7–9 (this transition had already begun prior to the nineteenth century).

174. For example, Robert Cryer, Prosecuting International Crimes (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 25.

175. Jeffrey L. Dunoff, Steven R. Ratner, and David Wippman, International Law: Norms, Actors, Process (Aspen: Aspen Publishers, 2006), 441.

176. Whetham, Just Wars, 72–73; and Fossey John Cobb Hearnshaw, “Legal Literature,” in Cambridge History of English and American Literature, 18 vols., ed. Adolphus William Ward and Alfred Rayney Waller (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1907), 7:362–36.

177. Keen, Laws of War, 14–18, 50–59.

178. Draper, G.I.A.D., “The Status of Combatants and the Question of Guerilla Warfare,British Yearbook of International Law 45 (1971): 174Google Scholar.

179. Ibid.

180. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 167–68.

181. Halleck, Henry W., “Military Tribunals and Their Jurisdiction,American Journal of International Law 5 (1911): 958–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Section 5c.

182. Draper, “Status of Combatants,” 173–74.

183. Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction,” 99.

184. See Section 5c; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 999 United Nations Treaty Series 171, Art. 15(2) (16 December 16, 1966).

185. Gary D. Solis, The Law of Armed-Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 54.

186. For example, Emer de-Vattel, The Law of Nations (London: Robinson, 1797), 425.

187. For example, Stephen, Criminal Law of England, 2:62–63.

188. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 147; and Keen, Laws of War, 56.

189. Oded Mudrik, Military Justice [in Hebrew] (Tel-Aviv: Bursi, 1993), 17–21.

190. Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction,” 99; and Whetham, Just Wars, 73–74.

191. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 147; and James Turner, Pallas Armata (London: Richard Chiswel, 1683), 206.

192. Reproduced in Francis Grose, Military Antiquities, 2 vols. (London: Hooper, 1788), 2:137 (emphasis added).

193. Gill, “Chivalry,” 36–37.

194. Mudrik, Military Justice, 20–21.

195. See Section 5c.

196. Gross, Leo, “The Peace of Westphalia, 1648–1948,American Journal of International Law 42 (1948): 2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Travers Twiss, The Law of Nations (Clarendon: Oxford University Press, 1861), v.

197. Gross, “Peace of Westphalia,” 29.

198. Andrew Phillips, War, Religion and Empire: The Transformation of International Orders (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 136–37.

199. Beaulac, “Westphalian Model,” 195–204.

200. Francisco Forrest Martin, The Constitution as Treaty (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 27–29.

201. Berber, F. J., “The International Aspects of the Holy Roman Empire after the Treaty of Westphalia,Indian Yearbook of International Law 13 (1964): 175Google Scholar.

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203. See, Koskenniemi, “Legal Fragmentation(s)”, 803–6; Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Toward a New Legal Common Sense: Law, Globalization, and Emancipation (London: Lexis, 2002), 62.

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207. Ibid., 100.

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209. Ibid.; Teschke, The Myth of 1648, 2.

210. Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 36–37.

211. Nicholas Onuf, “‘Tainted by Contingency’: Retelling the Story of International Law,” in Reframing the International, ed. Richard A. Falk, Lester Edwin J. Ruiz and Rob B. J. Walker (New York: Routledge, 2013), 27.

212. Beaulac, “Westphalian Model,” 192–94.

213. Hearnshaw, “Legal Literature,” 7:362–36.

214. For example, In re Piracy Jure Gentium, 589–91.

215. Fletcher, George P., “Parochial Versus Universal Criminal Law,Journal of International Criminal Justice 3 (2005): 2226CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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217. Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, 2:350–55; and Simon Hirsch Cuttler, The Law of Treason and Treason Trials in Later Medieval France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 4–10, 62.

218. Edward Coke, ed. Steve Sheppard, Selected Writings, 3 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003), 1:612 (written in 1608). Contemporaneous reports on Warbeck's military trial are brief and contradictory: some state he was punished for “treason,” some that he was punished “as an enemy”. See, Perkin Warbeck's Case, Port 125 (1499); Perkin Warbeck's Case, I Caryll 383 (1499); and Perkin Warbeck's Case, I Dyer 206 (1499). See note 143 for a likely explanation for this confusion. See also Conrad Van-Dijk, John Gower and the Limits of the Law (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2013), 74–78 (discussing the usurpation doctrine).

219. See Keen, Laws of War, 45–48.

220. For example, Star Chamber Abolition Act of 1641, 16 Charles I, c. 10 (Eng.).

221. Eugene R. Fidell, “The Culture of Change in Military Law,” in Evolving Military Justice, ed. Eugene Fidell and Dwight Hall Sullivan (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2002), 165–66.

222. Edward Gunter, Outlines of Military Law and Customs of War (London: William Clowes and Sons, 1897), 15–18; Jeffrey Blackett, William Boothby, Charles Garraway, Christopher Greenwood, Steven Haines, John Hudson, Ruma Mandal and Anthony Rogers, Manual of the Law of Armed-Conflict (Shrivenham: U.K. MOD, 2004), 430. But see, U.K. MOD, “Manual of the Law of Armed-Conflict––Amendment No. 7” (2013), art. 49 (discussing a planned reform) (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

223. O'Keefe, Roger, “The Doctrine of Incorporation Revisited,British Yearbook of International Law 79 (2008): 33Google Scholar.

224. Whetham, Just Wars, 40–41, 75–83.

225. Russell, The Just War, 2, 69, 76, 84, 305; and Whetham, Just Wars, 109, 235.

226. Russell, The Just War, 7–19; and Edelstein, “Hostis,” 62–63.

227. Whetham, Just Wars, 80–83, 183, 196, 246.

228. For example, Richard P. DiMeglio, Sean M. Condron, Owen B. Bishop, Gregory S. Musselman, Todd L. Lindquist, Andrew D. Gillman, William J. Johnson and Daniel E. Stigall, Law of Armed-Conflict Deskbook (Charlottesville: U.S. Army J.A.G., 2012), 13.

229. Keen, Laws of War, 22–23, 105, 241.

230. Whetham, Just Wars, 42, 69–86, 112.

231. Ibid., 42–45, 88, 259.

232. Neil Jamieson, “‘Sons of Iniquity’: The Problem of Unlawfulness and Criminality amongst Professional Soldiers in the Middle-Ages,” in Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England, ed. John C. Appleby and Paul Dalton (Burlington: Ashgate, 2009), 91.

233. See, Keen, Laws of War, 96–100; and Russell, The Just War, 160.

234. Jamieson, “‘Sons of Iniquity’,” 100.

235. Emily Sohmer-Tai, “Marking Water: Piracy and Property in the Pre-Modern West” (paper presented at Seascapes, Littoral Cultures, and Trans-Oceanic Exchanges, February 12–15, 2003), at text near n. 39 (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

236. Rowe, B.J.H., “John Duke of Bedford and the Norman ‘Brigands’,English History Review 47 (1932): 596Google Scholar (noting that war crime prosecution was rare during that war).

237. Whetham, Just Wars, 4, 17–18, 45, 66; and Keen, Laws of War, 51–59, 96–100, 130–31, 162–73.

238. Ordericus Vitalis, trans. Thomas Forester, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, 8 vols. (London: H.G. Bohn, 1853), 3:233 (written in c. 1075–1143) (emphasis added).

239. Tracy Adams, The Life and Afterlife of Isabeau of Bavaria (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010), 34–36; and Gibbons, Rachel, “Isabeau of Bavaria Queen of France (1385–1422): The Creation of a Historical Villainess,Transactions of the Royal History Society 6 (1996): 7071Google Scholar.

240. Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck with contributions by Carolin Alvermann, Knut Dormann and Baptiste Rolle, Customary International Humanitarian Law, 2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 1:219–20, 1:228.

241. Titus Livius, ed. Thomas Hearne, Vita Henrici Quinti, Regis Angliae (Oxford: Thomas Hearne, 1716), 78 (written in the fifteenth century).

242. Urbain Plancher, Histoire générale et particulière de Bourgogne, 3 vols. (Dijon: Antoine de-Fay, 1748), 3:529–30.

243. Gibbons, “Isabeau,” 70–71.

244. Keen, Laws of War, 48; Anonymous (The Translator of Livius), ed. Charles Lethbridge Kinsford First English Life of Henry V, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911) 169–72 (written in 1513).

245. See Draper, G.I.A.D., “The Modern Pattern of War Criminality,Israel Yearbook on Human Rights 6 (1976): 12Google Scholar.

246. Keen, Laws of War, 51–59, 130–31, 162–73.

247. Cuttler, Law of Treason, 4–10.

248. Art. 8(2)(b)(xi), 8(2)(e)(ix) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, July 17, 1998, U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 183/9 (Rome Statute).

249. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 146, 151–52; and Keen, Laws of War, 193.

250. Truce of God Decree (1085), English translation at (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

251. Canon 27 of the Third Lateran Council (1179), English translation at (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

252. Ibid. (emphasis added).

253. Russell, The Just War, 161, 308.

254. Michael Prestwich, Armies and Warfare in the Middle-Ages: The English Experience (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 241.

255. Stacey, “The Age of Chivalry,” 37.

256. Ibid., 30; and Prestwich, Armies and Warfare, 242.

257. Keen, Laws of War, 191.

258. John Gillingham, “Women, Children and the Profits of War,” in Gender and Historiography, ed. Janet Nelson, Susan Reynolds and Susan Johns (London: IHR, 2012), 61–74.

259. Keen, Laws of War, 192.

260. David J.B. Trim, “Intervention in European History c. 1520–1850,” in Just and Unjust Military Intervention, ed. Stefano Recchia and Jennifer Welsh (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 26.

261. Ibid.; Van-Dijk, John Gower, 74–78; Brincat, “Death to Tyrants––Part I,” 214; and Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, 557.

262. See note 226 and accompanying text; and John Parker, A History of Popery (1838), 125.

263. See the tyranny cases discussed in section 5b.

264. For example, Helene Wieruszowski, Politics and Culture in Medieval Spain and Italy (Roma: di Storia e Letteratura, 1971), 62–63; and Daniel Baraz, Medieval Cruelty (New York: Cornell University Press, 2003), 134.

265. Trim, “Intervention,” 26.

266. See note 63 and accompanying text.

267. Whetham, Just Wars, 56–63, 81–88.

268. See, Schmitt, Nomos of the Earth, 64–67.

269. Abbot Suger, trans. J. Dunbabin, Life of King Louis the Fat, Ch. VII, (1999) (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

270. Ibid., Ch. XXIV (emphasis added).

271. Ibid. (emphasis added).

272. Ibid.

273. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 147.

274. See, for example, ibid., 146–47, 151–52.

275. See Section 1.

276. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 143–68.

277. DiMeglio, Law of Armed-Conflict, 12–13 (“[The work of] Hugo Grotius… is regarded as the starting point for the development of the modern LOAC. … According to Grotius, the law of war was based not on divine law, but on recognition of the true natural state of relations among States. This concept was reinforced through the Peace of Westphalia in 1648”; and “Jus in Bello received less attention during the Just War Period.”); and Frits Kalshoven and Liesbeth Zegveld, Constraints on the Waging of War: An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law (Geneva: ICRC, 2001), 13–14 (“the assertion that humanitarian law may prolong war… [is] totally a-historic, in that it denies and attempts to set aside the development of centuries… Writing at the time of the Thirty-Years War (1618–1648), in his famous treatise Grotius compared the practice of conducting virtually unrestricted war—all the barbaric things belligerents could do, as he said, with impunity as far as the positive law of his time was concerned–with another, more commendable mode of waging war… which he then expounded… [that] correspond[s] in many respects with the rules of humanitarian law as we know it today.”).

278. Cryer, Prosecuting International Crimes, 25.

279. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 150–68.

280. See notes 178–79 and accompanying text.

281. For example, DiMeglio, Law of Armed-Conflict, 11–16.

282. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 159, 168.

283. For example, Ernest K. Bankas, The State Immunity Controversy in International Law (Sachse: Springer, 2005), 1–9.

284. Raymond Kubben, Regeneration and Hegemony (The Hague: Martinus-Nijhoff, 2011), 233.

285. Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization: A Brief History (Boston: Cengage Learning, 2013), 397; and Grewe, The Epochs of International Law, 432.

286. Lesaffer, Randall, “The Grotian Tradition Revisited: Change and Continuity in the History of International Law,British Yearbook of International Law 73 (2002): 108–9Google Scholar, 137; and Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 20–21.

287. Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 36–37.

288. Ibid.

289. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 167–168.

290. Gill, “Chivalry,” 36.

291. Cathal J. Nolan, The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000–1650, 2 vols. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2006), 1:316.

292. Blaise de-Monluc, trans. Charles Cotton, Commentaires (London: Andrew Clark, 1674), 230–31 (written in 1592).

293. Ibid.

294. Edward Armstrong, French Wars of Religion (London: Percival, 1892), 93–94 (emphasis added).

295. Christopher Coker, The Future of War (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), 62–63.

296. Ryan Anders Pederson, Noble Violence and the Survival of Chivalry in France: 1560–1660 (PhD diss., Binghamton University, 2007), 365.

297. Frank Tallett, War and Society in Early-Modern Europe: 1495–1715 (London: Routledge, 1997), 129.

298. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 160.

299. Draper, G.I.A.D., “The Interaction of Christianity and Chivalry in the Historical Development of the Law of War,International Review of the Red Cross 5 (1965): 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

300. Tallett, War and Society, 55–56, 163.

301. Ibid., 125.

302. David M. Crowe, War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History (New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2014), 34.

303. For example, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, trans. Paule Iue, Instructions for the Warres (London: Thomas Orwin, 1589), 246–48.

304. John A. Lynn, Giant of the Grand Siecle: The French Army 1610–1715 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 398. See also, Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 146–47.

305. Art. 2, Édit de Nantes (1598). English translation from James Fontaine, trans. Ann Maury, Memoirs of a Huguenot Family, (New York: Putnam & Company, 1872), 452.

306. Ibid., Art. 86.

307. Diane Claire Margolf, Religion and Royal Justice in Early Modern France (Kirksville: Truman State University Press, 2003), 79.

308. An Act for the Pacification between England and Scotland (1640), 16 Charles I, c. 17 (Eng.), reproduced at British History Online, (last accessed 28 March 2016).

309. George Mackenzie, The Laws and Customs of Scotland in Matters Criminal (Edinburgh: Anderson, 1699), 216.

310. Parker, Empire, War and Faith, 152–53, 160–64.

311. Ibid., 160.

312. See note 116 and accompanying text.

313. Philip II, “Proclamation Outlawing William the Silent” (1580), English translation at (last accessed 28 March 2016).

314. Ibid.

315. William Russell, The History of Modern Europe, 3 vols. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1836), 1:483.

316. Johannes Voet, De Jure Militari Liber Singularis (1670), 248–49 (translated for this article by Benedikt Pirker).

317. Kalshoven and Zegveld, Waging of War, 13.

318. Geoff Mortimer, Eyewitness Accounts of the Thirty Years War 1618–48 (New York: Palgrave, 2002), 1–5, 164–78.

319. For example, Eva Berger, Dem Frieden die Zukunft 1648–1998 (Steinfurt: Cramer, 1998), 53–56 (Colonel Limbach's case); and Voet, De Jure Militari, 248–49.

320. Grotius, De Jure Belli, 506.

321. Donagan, Barbara, “Atrocity, War Crime, and Treason in the English Civil War,American History Review 99 (1994): 1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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323. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War 1642–1649, 4 vols. (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1905), 4:322.

324. Charles I's Case, State Trials–Political and Social 75, 118 (1649) (emphasis added) (Ibid., 112, Charles is accused of being “Public Enemy to the Commonwealth of England,” indicating that domestic and international law were not yet fully distinct).

325. Ibid., 111.

326. Donagan, “Atrocity,” 1148.

327. “The Sentence of the High Court of Justice against the King,” reproduced in Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings of England (London: Sawbridge, 1684), 573.

328. Gardiner, Great Civil War, 4:252.

329. Ibid., 4:205, 4:251–53; Donagan, “Atrocity,” 1161.

330. Edward Coke, The Third Part of the Institutions of the Law of England (London: Crooke, 1669), 47.

331. Baker, Kings of England, 574.

332. Charles I's Case, State Trials, 114.

333. Brincat, “Tyrants––Part I,” 221–27.

334. Charles I's Case, State Trials, 108.

335. Gill, “Chivalry,” 36.

336. Armstrong Starkey, War in the Age of Enlightenment: 1700–1789 (Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 2003), 24.

337. Georg Friedrich von Martens, Summary of the Law of Nations (Philadelphia: 1795), 297.

338. de-Vattel, The Law of Nations, 366.

339. Gordon Kerr, A Short History of the First World War (Harpenden: Oldcastle Books, 2014).

340. Cited in John Grenier, The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607–1814 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 92.

341. For example, Ibid., 91–93.

342. Harold E. Selesky, “Colonial America,” in The Laws of War, 74. See also, Kroener, “Antichrist, Archenemy, Disturber of the Peace,” 59.

343. Russell F. Weigley, The Age of Battles (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004), 46.

344. Shaw, International Law, 507.

345. Walter Rech, Enemies of Mankind: Vattel's Theory of Collective Security (Leiden: Martinus-Nijhoff, 2013), 36, 78–79, 138–49.

346. Ibid., 138–39.

347. Thomas Carlyle, History of Friedrich the Second Called Frederick the Great, 8 vols. (Chicago: Belford, Clarke and Co., 1890), 5:82 (emphasis added).

348. Rech, Enemies of Mankind, 142–44.

349. Ibid., 147–48 (translation of Vattel's letter [February, 28 1757]; the bracketed text was added by Rech) (emphasis added).

350. de-Vattel, The Law of Nations, 359–61, 368, 374–75. With regard to other war crimes the reference is implicit, see, pages: lvii–iii, 347–48, 352, 367, 370.

351. Ibid., 108–9.

352. For example, Ibid., 156–57, 164, 195.

353. Ibid., 305, 431.

354. Ibid., 378–79.

355. Ibid., 289.

356. Ibid., 367.

357. Ibid., 230.

358. Rech, Enemies of Mankind, 142–49.

359. A detailed account of aggression's distinct legal history cannot be made herein because of space considerations.

360. For example, Quincy Wright, History of the UN War Crimes Commission (London: HMSO, 1948), 180–85, 254–55.

361. See note 237 and accompanying text.

362. Lesaffer, “Grotian Tradition,” 127.

363. Ibid., 137.

364. Ibid.

365. Lesaffer, “Unrequited Love,” 37.

366. Stacey, “The Age of Chivalry,” 31.

367. Suger, King Louis the Fat, Ch. VII, XXIV.

368. See notes 329–31 and accompanying text.

369. Declaration of the Powers, 663.

370. Reports from the Committee of Enquiry into Breaches of the Laws of War (London: HMSO, 1920), 97.

371. Commission on the Responsibilities of the Authors of War and on Enforcement of Penalties,” reproduced in American Journal of International Law 14 (1920), 118–20Google Scholar, 138–39; and James F. Willis, Prologue to Nuremberg (Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 1982), 72–77.

372. Art. 227, Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919).

373. Charter of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, art. 6(a), 83 UNTC 279 (1945) (Nuremberg Charter).

374. Patrycja Grzebyk, Criminal Responsibility for the Crime of Aggression (New York: Routledge, 2013), 96.

375. United States of America vs. Ernst von Weizsäcker, et al. (“The Ministries Trial”), Trials of the War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals 14 (1949), 321 (emphasis added).

376. Wright, Quincy, “The Law of the Nuremberg Trial,American Journal of International Law 41 (1947): 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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378. Lesaffer, “Grotian Tradition,” 137.

379. John Frost, Pictorial Life of George Washington (Philidelphia: Gillis, 1847), 394.

380. Reprinted in Richard Perry and John Cooper, eds., Sources of Our Liberties, (Chicago: American Bar Foundation, 1959), 318–19 (emphasis added).

381. Ibid., 321.

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385. Ian Germani, “Hatred and Honour in the Military Culture of the French Revolution,” in Warrior's Dishonour, ed. George Kassimeris (London: Ashgate, 2006), 41–57.

386. See, for example, Browning, Nature of Warfare, 47; and Morris, Scott R., “The Laws of War: Rules by Warriors for Warriors,The Army Lawyer 1997 (1997): 89Google Scholar.

387. Dan Edelstein, The Terror of Natural Right (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), 153.

388. Edelstein, “War and Terror,” 248.

389. For example, Maximilien Robespierre, trans. Mitch Abidor, Speech Given from the Tribune of the Convention; 7 Prairial, Year II (May 26, 1794) (last accessed 28 March 2016).

390. Edelstein, The Terror, 147–52.

391. Edelstein, “War and Terror,” 251–54.

392. Ibid., 229, 249–62; and Edelstein, “Hostis,” 76–81.

393. See Section 2.

394. Turan Kayaoglu, Legal Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 27–28.

395. For example, Manner, George, “The Legal Nature and Punishment of Criminal Acts of Violence Contrary to the Law of War,American Journal of International Law 37 (1943): 407, 419–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 434.

396. Coleman v. Tennessee, 97 U.S. 509, 519 (1878).

397. For example, Bartlett, C. A. Hereshoff, “Liability for Official War Crimes,Law Quarterly Review 35 (1919): 185Google Scholar.

398. Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction,” 99 (overstating the effect of this reform on ICL).

399. Morris, “Laws of War,” 7–13; Renault, Louis, “War and the Law of Nations in the Twentieth Century,American Journal of International Law 9 (1915): 35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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401. James Garner, International Law and the World War, 2 vols. (London: Longmans,1920), 2:473; William Winthrop, Digest of Opinions of the Judge Advocate General of the Army (Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1865), 132–33.

402. Shaw, International Law, 28.

403. Convention (II) with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land, pmbl., 205 CTS 277 (July 29, 1899).

404. Jenny S. Martinez, The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 114.

405. Ibid., 131.

406. Ibid., 125–26, 135.

407. See note 385.

408. Bernard, Montague, “The Growth of Laws and Usages of War,Oxford Essays 2 (1856): 114Google Scholar (“When a Russian officer at Inkermann is taken in the act of stabbing disabled men … his captors … assert[ed] their right to punish him as a felon”).

409. “Myth: Henry Wirz Was the Only Person Tried for War Crimes in the Civil War” (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

410. Renault, Louis, “De l'application du droit pénal aux faits de guerre,” [“Applying Penal Law to the Circumstances of War”] Revue Générale de Droit International Public 25 (1918): 18Google Scholar; Moritz Busch, Bismarck in the Franco German War 1870–1871: Abridged Edition (Chicago: Belfords, Clarke & Co., 1879), 136–38.

411. Peter Holquist, “The Russian Empire as a ‘Civilized State’: International Law as Principle and Practice in Imperial Russia, 1874–1878,” (N.C.E.E.E.R. Research Paper, 2004), 25 (last accessed 28 March 2016) (“The Russian command issued orders restricting soldiers to their bivouacs and threatening punishment for any looting… During the war and afterward, Russian military courts in areas under military occupation tried Turkish civilians for slaughtering Bulgarians and Greeks… But Russian military courts, both during the war and during the occupation afterward, equally prosecuted Greeks and Bulgarians for massacring and raping Turks.”); and Nicholas Maximilianovich de Beauharnais the Duke of Leuchtenberg, “Letter to Professor Martens” (19 February, 1881), published in French in Revue de droit international et de législation Comparée [Journal of International and Comparative Law] 13 (1881) 308 (mentioning that in the Russian regiments under his command two soldiers were punished for pillage, as well as that the discipline he maintained resulted in a high level of adherence to the laws of war among his soldiers).

412. Joseph R. Baker and Henry G. Crocker, The Laws of Land War Concerning the Rights and Duties of Belligerents (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1919), 125 (reporting that three Boer combatants were sentenced to death for the war crime of attacking after raising their hands as a sign of surrender); and Nick Bleszynski, Shoot Straight, You Bastards! The Truth Behind the Killing of “Breaker” Morant (Sydney: Random House Australia, 2003), 324 (discussing the court-martial of Australian soldiers for illegally executing captured Boer combatants).

413. Donald A. Wells, The Laws of Land Warfare: A Guide to the U.S. Army Manuals (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992), 117 (describing four cases).

414. J. M. Spaight, War Rights on Land (London: Macmillan, 1911), 111 (“Two Japanese officers … were captured, disguised as Chinamen, trying to dynamite a railway bridge in Manchuria … They were condemned to death by court-martial”).

415. See, for example, Charles Jacobs Peterson, A History of the Wars of the United States (Philadelphia: J. B. Smith, 1859), 77. See also the 1944 Memorandum cited in note 35.

416. Schmitt, Michael N., “Military Necessity and Humanity in International Humanitarian Law: Preserving the Delicate Balance,Virginia Journal of International Law 50 (2010): 796–97Google Scholar.

417. Solis, Gary D., “Obedience of Orders and the Law of War: Judicial Application in American Forums,American University International Law Review 15 (2000): 495–96Google Scholar, 510.

418. Manner, “Legal Nature”, 416–17.

419. Bower, Graham, “The Law of War: Prisoners of War and Reprisals,Papers Read Before the Grotius Society 1 (1915): 1922Google Scholar.

420. Lloyd George, Memoirs of the Peace Conference, 1:65.

421. Manner, “Legal Nature,” 422.

422. Antonio Cassese, International Criminal Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 232; Bellot, Hugh Hale Leigh, “War Crimes: Their Prevention and Punishment,Papers Read Before the Grotius Society 2 (1916): 31Google Scholar, 49.

423. Robert K. Woetzel, The Nuremberg Trials in International Law (London: Stevens and Sons, 1960), 26–27.

424. Coleman Phillipson, International Law and the Great War (London: Unwin, 1915), 179, 259 (emphasis added).

425. Cited in Lefroy, “By the Way,” 546–47 (emphasis added).

426. Ibid.

427. Bartlett, “Liability for Official War Crimes,” 178–79.

428. Willis, Prologue to Nuremberg, 126–46.

429. Treaty of Versailles, art. 228.

430. Ibid., art. 227.

431. Willis, Prologue to Nuremberg, 149–61, 178–81.

432. Ibid., 111 (emphasis added).

433. See notes 23, 31 and accompanying text.

434. See notes 32–35 and accompanying text.

435. Robert H. Jackson, “Report to President Truman on the Legal Basis for Trial of War Criminals (May 6, 1945),” reprinted in Temple Law Quarterly 19 (1945–46): 144, 148, 151–53Google Scholar.

436. Kennedy, “International Law,” 110 (discussing WWI).

437. Whetham, Just Wars, 52.

438. Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, 42 vols. (Nuremberg: International Military Tribunal, 1947), 1:220–21.

439. Ibid., 221.

440. Cassese, International Criminal Law, 38.

441. Ibid., 40.

442. Prior to becoming a distinct category in 1948, “genocide” was a “sub-category of crimes against humanity”; Cassese, International Criminal Law, 96.

443. Cassese, International Criminal Law, 67. The protest is reproduced in (last accessed, March 28, 2016).

444. Paust, International Criminal Law, 703; and Cassese, International Criminal Law, 68.

445. Wright, War Crimes Commission, 189.

446. Dubler, Robert, “What's in a Name? A Theory of Crimes Against Humanity,Australian International Law Journal 15 (2008): 88Google Scholar.

447. William Schabas, Unimaginable Atrocities: Justice, Politics, and Rights at the War Crimes Tribunals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 51–53.

448. Ibid.

449. Lynch John, ed. Matthew Kelly, Cambrensis Eversus (Dublin: Celtic Society, 1851 [written in 1662]) 3(1):201.

450. Urban, Sylvanus, “Abstracts of Foreign Occurrences,Gentleman's Magazine 72 (1802): 672Google Scholar.

451. Sources cited in Martinez, The Slave Trade, 114–116.

452. For example, Pierre Ayraut, Opuscules et Divers Traictez (Paris: Jeremie Perier, 1598), 250.

453. Kenneth Gallant, The Principle of Legality in International and Comparative Criminal Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 94.

454. Ziming Wu, Chinese Christianity (Leiden: BRILL, 2012), 49.

455. Reproduced in Paul H. Clements, The Boxer Rebellion (New York: Columbia University, 1915), 207.

456. James Hevia, English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China (Durham: Duke University Press; 2003), 224–29.

457. For example, “Communication Made by Abro Efendi to the Members of the Syrian Commission,” Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons xxxv (1861): 87 (the Syrian atrocities [1860]); North-China Herald Supplement (August 9, 1895) (the Kucheng massacre [1895]).

458. For example, Gordon Llewellyn Iseminger, Britain's Eastern Policy and the Ottoman Christians, 1856–1877 (PhD diss., University of Oklahoma, 1965), 123–38 (1860 Syria).

459. For example, Hevia, English Lessons, 224–29 (discussing the Boxer War).

460. For example, William Palmer, Hazell's Annual (London: Hazell, 1896), 103 (regarding the response to the Sichuan massacre [1895]).

461. For example, Manner, “Legal Nature”, 407, 420–25, 434.

462. Clements, Boxer Rebellion, 100.

463. Cited in Vahakn N. Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide (Providence: Berghahn Books, 2003), 314 n. 23.

464. George Augustus Sala, My Diary in America in the Midst of War, 2 vols. (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1865), 2:330 (emphasis added). For further discussion of Butler's case see note 28.

465. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, 557; and Trim, “Intervention,” 21–47.

466. Trim, “Intervention,” 22.

467. Ibid., 38.

468. For example, Sheldon Amos, Political and Legal Remedies for War (London: Cassel, Petter, Galpin and Co., 1880), 79.

469. Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction”, 99.

470. Garner, International Law, 473–474.

471. Dickinson, Edwin D., Bishop, William W. Jr., Akzin, Benjamin, and Preuss, Lawrence, “Jurisdiction with Respect to Crime,American Journal of International Law 29 (Supplement, 1935): 571–79Google Scholar.

472. Garner, International Law, 473 (emphasis added).

473. Trial of the Major War Criminals, 3:92, 3:128 (French Prosecutor's Opening Argument).

474. Gallant, Principle of Legality, 96.

475. Although the nineteenth-century cases from which the contemporary understanding of crimes against humanity emerged were mainly cases against non-Christians/Europeans/Westerners, the two doctrines from which it developed were never consensually deemed to be inapplicable to Christians/Europeans/Westerners. Namely, 1) as mentioned, the perception of felonies as universal crimes (“common law crimes”) still had some applications even within Europe, and 2) the doctrine of humanitarian intervention was regarded by most jurists who supported it as applicable to Christian/European/Westerner nations and not only to non-Christians/Europeans/Westerners; see Grewe, The Epochs of International Law, 287–95; Ellery C. Stowell, Intervention in International Law (Washington: John Byrne & Co., 1921), 64–65 n. 14.

476. See Cassese, International Criminal Law, 65.

477. David Luban, “Fairness to Rightness: Jurisdiction, Legality, and the Legitimacy of International Criminal Law,” in Philosophy of International Law, ed. Samantha Besson and John Tasioulas (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 574.

478. Wright, War Crimes Commission, 179 (emphasis added).

479. Alette Smeulers and Fred Grünfeld, International Crimes and Other Gross Human Rights Violations (Leiden: Martinus-Nijhoff, 2007), 85.

480. Compare Nuremberg Charter, art. 6(c) with Rome Statute, art. 7.

481. See Alston, “On the Origins of Human Rights,” 2066–68.

482. Edelstein, The Terror, 18.

483. Gary J. Bass, Freedom's Battle: The Origins of Humanitarian Intervention (New York: Knopf, 2008), 6.

484. Martinez, The Slave Trade, 114–16.

485. Cassese, International Criminal Law, 67–68.

486. Suger, King Louis the Fat, Ch. XXIV.

487. Croxton, Derek, “The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 and the Origins of Sovereignty,International History Review 21 (1999): 582–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

488. Declaration of the Powers, 663.

489. 56 Geo. III, c. 22 (1816) (UK).

490. For example, “Trial of Warren Hastings (28th May, 1794),” in The Works of Edmund Burke, 9 vols. (Boston: Little and Brown, 1839), 8:65; and Martinez, The Slave Trade, 114–16.

491. Stephen C. Neff, “A Short History of International Law,” in International Law, ed. Malcolm D. Evans (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 48–50.

492. Gary D. Solis, “Courts Martial,” in Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice, ed. Antonio Cassese (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 284.

493. Allison Danner and Erik Voeten, “Who Is Running the International Criminal Justice System?” in Who Governs the Globe? ed. Deborah D. Avant, Martha Finnemore, and Susan K. Sell, eds. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 37.

494. Skinner, Quentin, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,History and Theory 8 (1969), 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

495. DiMeglio, Law of Armed-Conflict, 14.

496. Kennedy, “International Law,” 110.

497. Hall, “The Persistent Spectre,” 271; and Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer, 179–209, 274–302.

498. For example, ICRC President, Moynier, Gustave, “Note sur la création d'une institution judiciaire internationale propre à prévenir et à réprimer les infractions à la Convention de Genève,” [“Note on Creating an International Judicial Institution Aimed at Preventing and Punishing Violations of the Geneva Convention”] Bulletin International 11 (1872): 125–26Google Scholar.

499. For example, Trial of the Major War Criminals, 1:221.

500. Osiander, “Sovereignty,” 283.

501. For example, Luban, “Fairness to Rightness,” 569.

502. The reference here is to sociological legitimacy; namely, to perceptions of justified authority. See Grossman, Nienke, “Legitimacy and International Adjudicative Bodies,George Washington International Law Review 41 (2009): 116–17Google Scholar.

503. For example, Mutua, Makau, “From Nuremberg to the Rwanda Tribunal: Justice or Retribution?Buffalo Human Rights Law Review 8 (2000): 7982Google Scholar.

504. Greenawalt, Alexander K. A., “The Pluralism of International Criminal Law,Indiana Law Journal 86 (2011): 1111Google Scholar.

505. See Wismer, Peter, “Bringing Down the Walls! On the Ever-Increasing Dynamic Between the National and International Domains,Chinese Journal of International Law 5 (2006): 549CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

506. Antonio Cassese, “The Rationale for International Criminal Justice,” in Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice, 128.

507. See Beaulac, “Westphalian Model,” 185, 206–13.

508. See Section 4d.

509. See notes 200–201 and accompanying text; Chisholm v. Georgia, U.S. Lexis 249, 14 (1793) (United States Attorney-General: “The Princes … are distinct sovereignties. And, yet, both the Imperial Chamber and the Aulic Council hear and determine the complaints of individuals against Princes”).

510. Trim, “Intervention,” 39–40.

511. John Almon, An Impartial History of the Late War (London: Johnson, 1763), 175.

512. Trim, “Intervention,” 39–40.

513. For example, 1) Keen, Laws of War, 32–40, 48–50 (fourteenth and fifteenth century tribunals); 2) J. Keith Cheetham, On the Trial of Mary Queen of Scots (Edinburgh: Luath Press, 1999), 120 (a sixteenth century tribunal); 3) Treaty Concluded between Salim Agah and Hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski (August 19, 1634), Art. 1, English translation in Dariusz Kolodziejczyk, Ottoman-Polish Diplomatic Relations (Boston: Brill, 2000), 496 (a seventeenth century tribunal); 4) U.S. Treaty with the Delawares, 7 Stat. 13 (September 17, 1778) (a bipartisan tribunal agreed upon in the eighteenth century); and 5) Palmer, Hazell's Annual, 103 (the British–American tribunal at Sichuan [1895]). I intend to discuss these and other international criminal tribunals in a future article.

514. Itzhak Engelrad Introduction to Jurisprudence [in Hebrew] (Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 1991), 74–75; and Joseph Raz, Practical Reason and Norms (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 151.

515. Margaret McCown, “Judicial Law-Making and European Integration: The European Court of Justice,” in European Union: Power and Policy-Making, ed. Jeremy John Richardson (Oxon: Routledge, 2006), 173–76.

516. Ciara Damgaard, Individual Criminal Responsibility for Core International Crimes (Berlin: Springer, 2008), 104–13.

517. For example, Rabkin, Jeremy, “Global Criminal Justice: An Idea Whose Time Has Passed,Cornell International Law Journal 38 (2005): 767–68Google Scholar.

518. Rikhof, Joseph, “Fewer Places to Hide? The Impact of Domestic War Criminals Prosecution on International Impunity,Criminal Law Forum 20 (2009): 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

519. Ashley Montagu, Man's Most Dangerous Myth (Walnut Creek: Alta-Mira Press, 1997), 41; and Beaulac, “Westphalian Model,” 186–88.