Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-cjp7w Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T21:12:52.588Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Study of pure and mixed clustered noble gas puffs irradiated with a high intensity (7 × 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser beam and achievement of a strong X-ray flash in a laser-generated debris-free X-ray source

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 July 2019

K. A. Schultz*
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
V. L. Kantsyrev
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
A. S. Safronova
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
V. V. Shlyaptseva
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
E. E. Petkov
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
I. K. Shrestha
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
M. C. Cooper
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
G. M. Petrov
Plasma Physics Division, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
A. Stafford
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
C. J. Butcher
Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA
G. E. Kemp
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA
J. Park
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA
K. B. Fournier
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA
Author for correspondence: K. A. Schultz, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. E-mail:


We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abraham, O, Kim, S and Stein, G (1981) Homogeneous nucleation of sulfur hexafluoride clusters in Laval nozzle molecular beams. The Journal of Chemical Physics 75, 402.Google Scholar
Alexeev, I, Antonsen, T, Kim, K and Milchberg, H (2003) Self-focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas. Physical Review Letters 90, 103402.Google Scholar
Balakin, AV, Borodin, AV, Dzhidzhoev, MS, Gorgienko, VM, Esaulkov, MN, Zhvaniya, IA, Kuzechkin, NA, Ozheredov, IA, Sidorov, AY, Solyankin, PM and Shkurinov, AP (2016) Terahertz emission during interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gas cluster beam. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 735, 12021.Google Scholar
Beg, FN, Bell, AR, Dangor, AE, Danson, CN, Fews, AP, Glinsky, ME, Hammel, BA, Lee, P, Norreys, PA and Tatarakis, M (1997) A study of picosecond laser–solid interactions up to 1019 W cm−2. Physics of Plasmas 4, 447457.Google Scholar
Caillaud, T, Blasco, F, Bontá, C, Dorchies, F and Mora, P (2006) Study of intense femtosecond laser propagation into a dense Ar gas and cluster jet. Physics of Plasmas 13, 033105.Google Scholar
Chen, H, Patel, PK, Price, DF, Young, BK, Springer, PT, Berry, R, Booth, R, Bruns, C and Nelson, D (2003) A compact electron spectrometer for hot electron measurement in pulsed laser solid interaction. Review of Scientific Instruments 74, 15512076.Google Scholar
Chen, LM, Kando, M, Ma, J, Kotaki, H, Fukuda, Y, Hayashi, Y, Daito, I, Homma, T, Ogura, K, Mori, M, Pirozhkov, AS, Koga, J, Daido, H, Bulanov, SV, Kimura, T, Tajima, T and Kato, Y (2007) Phase-contrast x-ray imaging with intense Ar Kalpha radiation from femtosecond-laser-driven gas target. Applied Physics Letters 90, 211501.Google Scholar
Chen, H, Link, AJ, van Maren, R, Patel, PK, Shepherd, R, Wilks, SC and Beiersdorfer, P (2008) High performance compact magnetic spectrometers for energetic ion and electron measurement in ultraintense short pulse laser solid interactions. Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 10E533.Google Scholar
Chen, H, Wilks, SC, Kruer, WL, Patel, PK and Shepherd, R (2009) Hot electron energy distributions from ultraintense laser solid interactions. Physics of Plasmas 16, 020705.Google Scholar
Chou, M, Lin, P, Lin, C, Lin, J, Wang, J and Chen, S (2007) Dramatic enhancement of optical-field-ionization collisional-excitation x-ray lasing by an optically-preformed plasma waveguide. Physical Review Letters 99, 63904.Google Scholar
Danylchenko, OG, Kovalenko, SI, Konotop, OP and Samovarov, VN (2015) Diagnostics of composition and size of clusters formed in supersonic jets of Ar–Kr gas mixtures. Low Temperature Physics 41, 637644.Google Scholar
Ditmire, T, Donnelly, T, Rubenchik, A, Falcone, R and Perry, M (1996) Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters. Physical Review A 53, 33793402.Google Scholar
Ditmire, T, Smith, RA, Marjoribanks, RS, Kulcsár, G and Hutchinson, MHR (1997) X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers. Applied Physics Letters 71, 166.Google Scholar
Ditmire, T, Patel, PK, Smith, RA, Wark, JS, Rose, SJ, Milathianaki, D, Marjoribanks, RS and Hutchinson, MHR (1998) keV x-ray spectroscopy of plasmas produced by the intense picosecond irradiation of a gas of xenon clusters. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 31, 2825.Google Scholar
Faenov, AY, Skobelev, IY, Pikuz, TA, Fortov, VE, Boldarev, AS, Gasilov, VA, Chen, LM, Zhang, L, Yan, WC, Yuan, DW, Mao, JY, Wang, ZH, Colgan, J and Abdallah, J (2011) Diagnostics of the early stage of the heating of clusters by a femtosecond laser pulse from the spectra of hollow ions. JETP Letters 94, 171176.Google Scholar
Faure, J, Malka, V, Marquès, JR, David, PG, Amiranoff, F, Ta Phuoc, K and Rousse, A (2002) Effects of pulse duration on self-focusing of ultra-short lasers in underdense plasmas. Physics of Plasmas 9, 756.Google Scholar
Fennel, T, Meiwes-Broer, KH, Tiggesbäumker, J, Reinhard, PG, Dinh, PM and Suraud, E (2010) Laser-driven nonlinear cluster dynamics. Reviews of Modern Physics 82, 17931842.Google Scholar
Gill, AK, Petkov, EE, Safronova, AS, Kantsyrev, VL, Childers, RR, Schultz, KA, Shlyaptseva, VV, Shrestha, IK and Cooper, MC (2017) No Title. 2017 Annual Meeting of the Far West Section, Merced, California, USA. No. E3.13Google Scholar
Griem, H.R. (2005). Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
Gu, MF (2008) The flexible atomic code. Canadian Journal of Physics 86, 675689.Google Scholar
Hagena, OF (1972) Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas. The Journal of Chemical Physics 56, 1793.Google Scholar
Hayashi, Y, Fukuda, Y, Faenov, AY, Kando, M, Kawase, K, Pikuz, TA, Homma, T, Daido, H and Bulanov, SV (2010) Intense and reproducible Kα emissions from micron-sized Kr cluster target irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 49, 126401.Google Scholar
Honda, H, Miura, E, Katsura, K, Takahashi, E and Kondo, K (2000) Evidence for wavelength dependence of Xe M-shell emission from clusters. Physical Review A 61, 023201.Google Scholar
Jha, J and Krishnamurthy, M (2008) Hotter electron generation in doped clusters. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 41, 41002.Google Scholar
Kantsyrev, VL, Schultz, KA, Shlyaptseva, VV, Petrov, GM, Safronova, AS, Petkov, EE, Shrestha, I, Cline, W, Wiewior, P and Chalyy, O (2016 a) Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses. Physical Review E 94, 053203.Google Scholar
Kantsyrev, VL, Schultz, KA, Shlyaptseva, VV, Safronova, AS, Cooper, MC, Shrestha, IK, Petkov, EE, Stafford, A, Moschella, JJ, Schmidt-Petersen, MT, Butcher, CJ, Kemp, GE, Andrews, SD and Fournier, KB (2016 b) Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2w, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 61, 411.Google Scholar
Kantsyrev, VL, Schultz, KA, Shlyaptseva, VV, Safronova, AS, Shrestha, IK, Petrov, GM, Moschella, JJ, Petkov, EE, Stafford, A, Cooper, MC, Weller, ME, Cline, W, Wiewior, P and Chalyy, O (2016 c) Study of x-rays produced from debris-free sources with Ar, Kr and Kr/Ar mixture linear gas jets irradiated by UNR Leopard laser beam with fs and ns pulse duration. High Energy Density Physics 19, 1122.Google Scholar
Kemp, GE, Link, A, Ping, Y, McLean, HS, Patel, PK, Freeman, RR, Schumacher, DW, Tiedje, HF, Tsui, YY, Ramis, R and Fedosejevs, R (2015) On specular reflectivity measurements in high and low-contrast relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Physics of Plasmas 22, 013110.Google Scholar
Kim, KY, Milchberg, HM, Faenov, AY, Magunov, AI, Pikuz, TA and Skobelev, IY (2006) X-ray spectroscopy of 1 cm plasma channels produced by self-guided pulse propagation in elongated cluster jets. Physical Review E – Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 73, 066403.Google Scholar
Kondo, K, Borisov, AB, Jordan, C, Mc Pherson, A, Schroeder, WA, Boyer, K and Rhodes, CK (1997) Wavelength dependence of multiphoton-induced Xe (M) and Xe (L) emissions from Xe clusters. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 30, 27072716.Google Scholar
Kugland, NL, Neumayer, P, Döppner, T, Chung, H-K, Constantin, CG, Girard, F, Glenzer, SH, Kemp, A and Niemann, C (2008) High contrast Kr gas jet K alpha x-ray source for high energy density physics experiments. The Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 10E917.Google Scholar
Lamour, E, Prigent, C, Rozet, JP and Vernhet, D (2007) X-ray production in short laser pulse interaction with rare gas clusters. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 88, 12035.Google Scholar
Last, I, Schek, I and Jortner, J (1997) Energetics and dynamics of Coulomb explosion of highly charged clusters. The Journal of Chemical Physics 107, 6685.Google Scholar
Maddox, BR, Park, HS, Remington, BA, Izumi, N, Chen, S, Chen, C, Kimminau, G, Ali, Z, Haugh, MJ and Ma, Q (2011) High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates. Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 023111.Google Scholar
Malka, V, Faure, J, Marquès, JR, Amiranoff, F, Rousseau, P, Ranc, S, Chambaretz, JP, Najmudin, Z, Walton, B, Mora, P, Solodov, A and Amiranoff, F (2001) Characterization of electron beams produced by ultrashort (30 fs) laser pulses. Physics of Plasmas 8, 26052608.Google Scholar
Müller, M, Kühl, F-C, Großmann, P, Vrba, P and Mann, K (2013) Emission properties of ns and ps laser-induced soft x-ray sources using pulsed gas jets. Optics Express 21, 1283112842.Google Scholar
Namba, S, Hasegawa, N, Nagashima, K, Kawachi, T, Kishimoto, M, Sukegawa, K and Takiyama, K (2006) Efficient electron heating in nitrogen clusters irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses. Physical Review A 73, 013205.Google Scholar
Parra, E, Alexeev, I, Fan, J, Kim, KY, McNaught, SJ and Milchberg, HM (2001) X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable laser\npulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets. Technical Digest. Summaries of papers presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Postconference Technical Digest (IEEE Cat. No.01CH37170) 62, 59315934.Google Scholar
Petrov, GM, Davis, J, Velikovich, AL, Kepple, P, Dasgupta, A and Clark, RW (2005) Dynamics of a Xe cluster plasma produced by an intense ultrashort pulse KrF laser. Physics of Plasmas 12, 063103.Google Scholar
Prigent, C, Deiss, C, Lamour, E, Rozet, J-P, Vernhet, D and Burgdörfer, J (2008) Effect of pulse duration on the x-ray emission from Ar clusters in intense laser fields. Physical Review A 78, 053201.Google Scholar
Schroeder, WA, Nelson, TR, Borisov, AB, Longworth, JW, Boyer, K and Rhodes, CK (2001) An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 34, 297319.Google Scholar
Schroeder, WA, Omenetto, FG, Borisov, AB, Longworth, JW, McPherson, A, Jordan, C, Boyer, K, Kondo, K and Rhodes, CK (1998) Pump laser wavelength-dependent control of the efficiency of kilovolt x-ray emission from atomic clusters. Journal of Physics B 31, 50315051.Google Scholar
Schultz, KA (2017) The Experimental Study of Characterized Noble Gas Puffs Irradiated by Ultra-Short Laser Pulses Compared with X-Pinches as an X-Ray Source (Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Nevada, Reno.Google Scholar
Schultz, KA, Kantsyrev, VL, Safronova, AS, Moschella, JJ, Wiewior, P, Shlyaptseva, VV and Weller, ME (2016) Characterization of pure and mixed Ar, Kr and Xe gas jets generated by different nozzles and a study of X-ray radiation yields after interaction with a sub-ps laser pulse. Physics of Plasmas 23, 101207.Google Scholar
Sharma, P and Vatsa, RK (2009) Generation of multiply charged atomic ions of halogens using second harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser. Current Applied Physics 9, 140143.Google Scholar
Shim, B, Hays, G, Zgadzaj, R, Ditmire, T and Downer, MC (2007) Enhanced harmonic generation from expanding clusters. Physical Review Letters 98, 98101.Google Scholar
Wachulak, PW, Wegrzynski, L, Zapraany, Z, Bartnik, A, Fok, T, Jarocki, R, Kostecki, J, Szczurek, M, Korytar, D and Fiedorowicz, H (2014) Extreme ultraviolet tomography of multi-jet gas puff target for high-order harmonic generation. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 117, 253263.Google Scholar
Zhang, L, Chen, L-M, Yuan, D-W, Yan, W-C, Wang, Z-H, Liu, C, Shen, Z-W, Faenov, A, Pikuz, T, Skobelev, I, Gasilov, V, Boldarev, A, Mao, J-Y, Li, Y-T, Dong, Q-L, Lu, X, Ma, J-L, Wang, W-M, Sheng, Z-M and Zhang, J (2011) Enhanced Kα output of Ar and Kr using size optimized cluster target irradiated by high-contrast laser pulses. Optics Express 19, 25812.Google Scholar
Zhvaniya, IA, Dzhidzhoev, MS and Gordienko, VM (2017) Femtosecond laser excitation of mixed Ar/Kr clusters: peculiarities of K-line x-ray production from nanoplasma under varied fraction of initial gas components. Laser Physics Letters 14, 96001.Google Scholar