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Phase transformation under beam-target interactions during high-intensity pulsed ion beam irradiation at low pressure

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 June 2011

X.P. Zhu
Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
F.G. Zhang
Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Y. Tang
Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
M.K. Lei*
Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: M.K. Lei, Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China. E-mail:


Nitrides and/or carbonitrides formation of high efficiency was found on titanium target under irradiation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with a few shots at a low pressure of 10−2 Pa order, which is extraordinary in comparison with conventional thermo-chemical diffusion process such as gas nitriding and/or carbonitriding of metals necessarily heated at high temperatures during a processing time of hours. The underlying mechanism of the nitrides and carbonitrides formation on titanium targets was explored by a comparative study on three typical HIPIB sources, i.e., TEMP-6, TEMP-4M, and ETIGO-II, varying the irradiation intensity within several J/cm2 per shot of a 60–70 ns pulse duration and the shot number of similar ion species. It is revealed that ambient gases and ion source material are the main sources providing the nitrogen and carbon species for the phase transformation on titanium target at the low pressures, whereas the ion species of HIPIB composition is negligible at a low implantation dose of 1013–1014 ions/cm2. The adsorbed gaseous species, the deposited layer of the ion source material, and in-situ formed compound top layer from reactions between ablation plasma and the ambient species during HIPIB irradiation, can be effectively incorporated into the irradiated target surfaces under a controlled HIPIB-target interaction.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

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