Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-8r8mm Total loading time: 0.339 Render date: 2021-11-28T04:57:18.835Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Nuclear diagnosis of the fuel areal density for direct-drive deuterium fuel implosion at the Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2019

Bo Cui
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Zhiheng Fang
Affiliation:
Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800, China
Zenghai Dai
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Hongjie Liu*
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Wei Wang
Affiliation:
Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Shanghai 201800, China
Jiabin Chen
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Bi Bi
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Chao Tian
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Dongxiao Liu
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Weiwu Wang
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Lianqiang Shan
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Feng Lu
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Gang Li
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Faqiang Zhang
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Bo Zhang
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Zhimeng Zhang
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Zhigang Deng
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Shukai He
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Jian Teng
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Wei Hong
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Yuqiu Gu*
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
Baohan Zhang
Affiliation:
Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
*
Author for correspondence: Y.Q. Gu and H.J. Liu, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, China, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; buyijie@163.com
Author for correspondence: Y.Q. Gu and H.J. Liu, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, China, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; buyijie@163.com

Abstract

In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ahlborn, B and Key, MH (1981) Scaling laws for laser driven exploding pusher targets. Plasma Physics 23, 435447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azechi, H, Miyanaga, N, Stapf, RO, Itoga, K, Nakaishi, H, Yamanaka, M, Shiraga, H, Tsuji, R, Ido, S and Nishihara, K (1986) Experimental determination of fuel density-radius product of inertial confinement fusion targets using secondary nuclear fusion reactions. Applied Physics Letters 49, 555557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azechi, H, Mima, K, Shiraga, S, Fujioka, S, Nagatomo, H, Johzaki, T, Jitsuno, T, Key, M, Kodama, R, Koga, M, Kondo, K, Kawanaka, J, Miyanaga, N, Murakami, M, Nagai, K, Nakai, M, Nakamura, H, Nakamura, T, Nakazato, T, Nakao, Y, Nishihara, K, Nishimura, H, Norimatsu, T, Norreys, P, Ozaki, T, Pasley, J, Sakagami, H, Sakawa, Y, Sarukura, N, Shigemori, K, Shimizu, T, Sunahara, A, Taguchi, T, Tanaka, K, Tsubakimoto, K, Fujimoto, Y, Homma, H and Iwamoto, A (2013) Present status of fast ignition realization experiment and inertial fusion energy development. Nuclear Fusion 53, 587593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blue, TE and Harris, DB (1981) Ratio of d-t to d-d reactions as a measure of the fuel density-radius product in initially tritium-free inertial confinement fusion targets. Nuclear Science and Engineering 77, 463469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, EJT, Falacy, SM, Hill, RA, Thacher, PD, Koehler, HA and Davis, B (1989) A compact dense-plasma-focus neutron source for detector calibrations. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 40–41, 12481251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cable, MD and Hatchett, SP (1987) Neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion targets for measurement of fuel areal density and charged particle stopping powers. Journal of Applied Physics 62, 22332236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cai, HB, Wu, SZ, Wu, JF, Mo, C, Hua, Z, He, MQ, Cao, LH, Zhou, CT, Zhu, SP and He, XT (2014) Review of the current status of fast ignition research at the IAPCM. High Power Laser Science and Engineering 2, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, JB, Zheng, ZJ, Peng, HS, Zhang, BH, Ding, YK, Chen, M, Chen, HS and Wen, TS (2001) Fusion fuel ion temperatures diagnostic for directly driven implosions. Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 35343536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, B, He, SK, Liu, HJ, Dai, ZH, Yan, YH, Lu, F, Li, G, Zhang, FQ, Hong, W and Gu, YQ (2016) Neutron spectrum measurement for picosecond laser pulse neutron source experiment with liquid scintillator detector. High Power Laser and Particle Beams 28, 124005.Google Scholar
Eljen Technology (2013) EJ-232Q data sheet. Sweetwater, TX 79556, USA. http://www.eljentechnology.comGoogle Scholar
Forrest, CJ, Radha, PB, Glebov, VY, Goncharov, VN, Knauer, JP, Pruyne, A, Romanofsky, M, Sangster, TC, Shoup, MJ III, Stoeckl, C, Casey, DT, Gatu-Johnson, M and Gardner, S (2012) High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega. Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 10D919.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gao, YQ, Ma, WX, Cao, ZD, Zhu, J, Yang, XD, Da, YP, Zhu, BQ and Lin, ZQ (2013). Status of the SG-II-UP laser facility. Conference Status of the SG-II-UP laser facility, pp. 7374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geng, T (2007) Scintillation neutron detector for DPF device. High Power Laser and Particle Beams 19, 10081010.Google Scholar
Glebov, VY, Meyerhofer, DD, Stoeckl, C and Zuegel, JD (2001) Secondary-neutron-yield measurements by current-mode detectors. Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 824827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glebov, VY, Forrest, CJ, Marshall, KL, Romanofsky, M, Sangster, TC, Shoup, MJ III and Stoeckl, C (2014) A new neutron time-of-flight detector for fuel-areal-density measurements on OMEGA. Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 11E102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gu, YQ, Yu, JQ, Zhou, WM, Wu, FJ, Wang, J, Liu, HJ, Cao, LF and Zhang, BH (2013) Collimation of hot electron beams by external field from magnetic-flux compression. Laser and Particle Beams 31, 579582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Habara, H, Norreys, PA, Kodama, R, Stoeckl, C and Glebov, VY (2006) Neutron measurements and diagnostic developments relevant to fast ignition. Fusion Science and Technology 49, 517531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Photomultiplier Tube (2014) R5916U data sheet. 1820, Kurematsu, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu City 431-1202, Japan. http://www.hamamatsu.com.Google Scholar
Hicks, DG (1999) Charged-Particle Spectroscopy: A New Window on Inertial Confinement Fusion (Ph.D. thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.Google Scholar
Izumi, N, Lerche, RA, Phillips, TW, Schmid, GJ, Moran, MJ, Koch, JA, Azechi, H and Sangster, TC (2003) Development of a gated scintillation fiber neutron detector for areal density measurements of inertial confinement fusion capsules. Review of Scientific Instruments 74, 17221725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurebayashi, S, Frenje, JA, Séguin, FH, Rygg, JR, Li, CK, Petrasso, RD, Glebov, VY, Delettrez, JA, Sangster, TC, Meyerhofer, DD, Stoeckl, C, Soures, JM, Amendt, PA, Hatchett, SP and Turner, RE (2005) Using nuclear data and Monte Carlo techniques to study areal density and mix in D2 implosions. Physics of Plasmas 12, 032703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lauck, R, Brandis, M, Bromberger, B, Dangendorf, V, Goldberg, MB, Mor, I, Tittelmeier, K and Vartsky, D (2009) Low-afterglow, high-refractive-index liquid scintillators for fast-neutron spectrometry and imaging applications. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 56, 989993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lerche, RA and Remington, BA (1990) Detector distance selection for neutron time-of-flight temperature measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments 61, 31313133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leskovar, B (1977) Microchannel plates. Physics Today 30, 4249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patronis, N, Kokkoris, M, Giantsoudi, D, Perdikakis, G, Papadopoulos, CT and Vlastou, R (2007) Aspects of GEANT4 Monte-Carlo calculations of the BC501A neutron detector. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment 578, 351355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Photek Ltd. (2013) PMT240 data sheet. St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, TN38 9NS, United Kingdom. http://www.photek.co.uk.Google Scholar
Ramis, R, Schmalz, J and Meyer-ter-Vehn, J (1988) MUTLI: a computer code for one-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. Computer Physics Communications 49, 475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rinderknecht, HG, Rosenberg, MJ, Zylstra, AB, Lahmann, B, Séguin, FH, Frenje, JA, Li, CK, Gatu Johnson, M, Petrasso, RD, Berzak Hopkins, LF, Caggiano, JA, Divol, L, Hartouni, EP, Hatarik, R, Hatchett, SP, Le Pape, S, Mackinnon, AJ, McNaney, JM, Meezan, NB, Moran, MJ, Bradley, PA, Kline, JL, Krasheninnikova, NS, Kyrala, GA, Murphy, TJ, Schmitt, MJ, Tregillis, IL, Batha, SH, Knauer, JP and Kilkenny, JD (2015) Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel pR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF. Physics of Plasmas 22, 082709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosen, MD and Nuckolls, JH (1979) Exploding pusher performance– A theoretical model. Physics of Fluids 22, 13931396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, MJ, Zylstra, AB, Séguin, FH, Rinderknecht, HG, Frenje, JA, Johnson, MG, Sio, H, Waugh, CJ, Sinenian, N, Li, CK, Petrasso, RD, McKenty, PW, Hohenberger, M, Radha, PB, Delettrez, JA, Glebov, VY, Betti, R, Goncharov, VN, Knauer, JP, Sangster, TC, LePape, S, Mackinnon, AJ, Pino, J, McNaney, JM, Rygg, JR, Amendt, PA, Bellei, C, Benedetti, LR, Hopkins, LB, Bionta, RM, Casey, DT, Divol, L, Edwards, MJ, Glenn, S, Glenzer, SH, Hicks, DG, Kimbrough, JR, Landen, OL, Lindl, JD, Ma, T, MacPhee, A, Meezan, NB, Moody, JD, Moran, MJ, Park, H-S, Remington, BA, Robey, H, Rosen, MD, Wilks, SC, Zacharias, RA, Herrmann, HW, Hoffman, NM, Kyrala, GA, Leeper, RJ, Olson, RE, Kilkenny, JD and Nikroo, A (2014) Investigation of ion kinetic effects in direct-drive exploding-pusher implosions at the NIF. Physics of Plasmas 21, 122712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruiz, CL, Leeper, RJ, Schmidlapp, FA, Cooper, G and Malbrough, DJ (1992) Absolute calibration of a total yield indium activation detector for DD and DT neutrons. Review of Scientific Instruments 63, 48894991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruiz, CL, Chandler, GA, Cooper, GW, Fehl, DL, Hahn, KD, Leeper, RJ, McWatters, BR, Nelson, AJ, Smelser, RM, Snow, CS and Torres, JA (2012) Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation. Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 10D913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Séguin, FH, Li, CK, Frenje, JA, Hicks, DG, Green, KM, Kurebayashi, S, Petrasso, RD, Soures, JM, Meyerhofer, DD, Glebov, VY, Soures, JM, Meyerhofer, DD, Glebov, VY, Radha, PB, Stoeckl, C, Roberts, S, Sorce, C, Sangster, TC, Cable, MD, Fletcher, K and Padalino, S (2002) Using secondary-proton spectra to study the compression and symmetry of deuterium-filled capsules at OMEGA. Physics of Plasmas 9, 27252737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shan, LQ, Cai, HB, Zhang, WS, Tang, Q, Zhang, F, Song, ZF, Bi, B, Ge, FJ, Chen, JB, Liu, DX, Wang, WW, Yang, ZH, Qi, W, Tian, C, Yuan, ZQ, Zhang, B, Yang, L, Jiao, JL, Cui, B, Zhou, WM, Cao, LF, Zhou, CT, Gu, YQ, Zhang, BH, Zhu, SP and He, XT (2018) Experimental evidence of kinetic effects in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums. Physical Review Letters 120, 195001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shiraga, H, Nagatomo, H, Theobald, W, Solodov, AA and Tabak, M (2014) Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-point design. Nuclear Fusion 54, 054005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solodov, AA, Anderson, KS, Betti, R, Betti, V, Gotcheva, V, Myatt, J, Delettrez, JA, Skupsky, S, Theobald, W and Stoeckl, C (2009) Integrated simulations of implosion, electron transport, and heating for direct-drive fast-ignition targets. Physics of Plasmas 16, 056309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckl, C, Boehly, TR, Delettrez, JA, Hatchett, SP, Frenje, JA, Glebov, VY, Li, CK, Miller, JE, Petrasso, RD, Séguin, FH, Smalyuk, VA, Stephens, RB, Theobald, W, Yaakobi, B and Sangster, TC (2005) Direct-drive fuel-assembly experiments with gas-filled, cone-in-shell, fast-ignitor targets on the OMEGA Laser. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 47, B859B867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoeckl, C, Cruz, M, Glebov, VY, Knauer, JP, Lauck, R, Marshall, K, Mileham, C, Sangster, TC and Theobald, W (2010) A gated liquid-scintillator-based neutron detector for fast-ignitor experiments and down-scattered neutron measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments 81, 10D302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tabak, M, Hammer, J, Glinsky, ME, Kruer, WL, Wilks, SC, Woodworth, J, Campbell, EM and Perry, MD (1994) Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers. Physics of Plasmas 1, 16261634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Theoobald, W, Solodov, AA, Stoeckl, C, Anderson, KS, Betti, R, Boehly, TR, Craxton, RS, Delettrez, JA, Dorrer, C, Frenje, JA, Glebov, VY, Habara, H, Tanaka, KA, Knauer, JP, Lauck, R, Marshall, FJ, Marshall, KL, Meyerhofer, DD, Nilson, PM, Patel, PK, Chen, H, Sangster, TC, Seka, W, Sinenian, N, Ma, T, Beg, FN, Giraldez, E and Stephens, RB (2011) Initial cone-in-shell fast-ignition experiments on OMEGA. Physics of Plasmas 18, 056305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, XC, Li, RR, Peng, TP, Zhang, JH and Guo, HS (2006) Precise calibration of 14.1 MeV neutron sensitivity of scintillator detector. Nuclear Electron Detection Technologies 26, 710713.Google Scholar
Zhu, TH, Liu, R, Jiang, L, Lu, XX, Wen, ZW, Wang, M and Lin, JF (2007) The associated proton monitoring technique study of D-D source neutron yields at the large angle. Nuclear Electron Detection Technologies 27, 141144.Google Scholar
Zhu, JQ, Zhu, J, Li, XC, Zhu, BQ, Ma, WX, Liu, D, Liu, C, Lu, XQ, Fan, W and Liu, ZG (2017) High power glass laser research progresses in NLHPLP. Conference High power glass laser research progresses in NLHPLP, pp. 1008405.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nuclear diagnosis of the fuel areal density for direct-drive deuterium fuel implosion at the Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Nuclear diagnosis of the fuel areal density for direct-drive deuterium fuel implosion at the Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Nuclear diagnosis of the fuel areal density for direct-drive deuterium fuel implosion at the Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *