Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-zts5g Total loading time: 0.278 Render date: 2021-10-23T00:32:38.887Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 January 2019

Johan Gross*
Affiliation:
University West

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of housing segregation on variation in the vowel systems of young speakers of Swedish who have grown up in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. Significant differences are found for variants of the variables /i:/ and /y:/, which are strongly associated with the local dialect; these two vowels also exhibit coherence. Another vowel pair, /ε:/ and /ø:/, are involved in a coherent leveling process affecting many of the central Swedish dialects but differing in degree of openness in different neighborhoods of Gothenburg. The results show that the variation is not simply a reflection of foreign background, nor of groups of youth adopting single variants; rather, a number of social factors conflate in housing segregation, which interferes with the transmission of more abstract aspects of the local dialect's vowel system to young speakers in certain neighborhoods.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

The author is grateful to Sally Boyd, Therese Leinonen, and James Walker for their comments on earlier versions. I also want to thank Julia Forsberg who helped collect the data and left comments to the text throughout the writing process.

References

Andersson, Lars-Gunnar. (2006). Hur Göteborgskan växte fram [How the Gothenburg dialect was formed]. In Nelson, K., Larsson, A., & Lööf, L.O. (eds.). Göteborg förr och nu [Gothenburg then and now]. Göteborg: Rundqvists.Google Scholar
Andersson, Roger, Bråmå, Åsa, & Hogdal, Jon. (2009). Fattiga och rika - segregerad stad. Flyttningar och segregationens dynamik i Göteborg 1990–2006 [Poor and rich—segregated city: Moving and segregation dynamics in Gothenburg 1990–2006]. Göteborg: Göteborgs stad.Google Scholar
Audacity Team. (2014). Audacity: A free multi-track audio editor and recorder. Available at: http://audacity.sourceforge.net/. Accessed November 6, 2018.Google Scholar
Bengtsson, Mattias, Börjesson, Mikael, Gustavsson, Martin, & Hörnqvist, Magnus. (2012). Klassamhället i den officiella statistiken [The class society in official statistics]. Fronesis Klass 40–41. Stockholm: Fronesis.Google Scholar
Boberg, Charles. (2004). Ethnic patterns in the phonetics of Montreal English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8(4):538568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boersma, Paul, & Weenink, David. (2016). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. Version 6.0.13. Available at: http://www.praat.org/. Accessed January 31, 2016.Google Scholar
Björseth, Bertil. (1957). Göteborgsspråket [The language of Gothenburg]. Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag.Google Scholar
Bloomfield, Leonard. (1933). Language. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Cameron, Richard. (2010). Growing up and apart: Gender divergences in a Chicagoland elementary school. Language Variation and Change 22(2):279319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Di Paolo, Marianne, Yaeger-Dror, Malcah, & Beckford Wassink, Alicia. (2011). Analyzing vowels. In Di Paolo, M. & Yaeger-Dror, M. (eds.), Sociophonetics: A student's guide. New York: Routledge. 87106.Google Scholar
Elert, Claes-Christian. (2000). Allmän och svensk fonetik [General and Swedish phonetics]. 8th ed. Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag.Google Scholar
Eriksson, Anders. (2004). SweDia 2000: A Swedish dialect database. In Henrichsen, P. J. (ed.), Babylonian confusion resolved: Proceedings of the Nordic symposium on the comparison of languages. Copenhagen Working Papers in LSP 1:3348.Google Scholar
Ganuza, Natalie. (2008). Syntactic variation in the Swedish of adolescents in multilingual urban settings: Subject-verb order in declaratives, questions and subordinate clauses. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
Gelfand, Stanley A. (2009). Hearing: An introduction to psychological and physiological acoustics. 5th ed. London: Informa Healthcare.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, Johan, Boyd, Sally, Leinonen, Therese, & Walker, James A. (2016). A tale of two cities (and one vowel): Sociolinguistic variation in Swedish. Language Variation and Change. 28: 225247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guy, Gregory R. (2013). The cognitive coherence of sociolects: How do speakers handle multiple sociolinguistic variables? Journal of Pragmatics 52:6371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartigan, John A., & Wong, Manchek A. (1979). Algorithm AS 136: A K-means clustering algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C (Applied Statistics) 28(1):100108.Google Scholar
Holmberg, Bengt. (1976). Språket i Göteborg [The language of Gothenburg]. Stockholm: Esselte Studium.Google Scholar
Jacobi, Irene. (2009). On variation and change in diphthongs and long vowels of spoken Dutch. Ph.D. dissertation, Universiteit of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Kendall, Tyler, & Thomas, Erik. (2014). Vowels: Vowel manipulation, normalization, and plotting in R. R package, version 1.2-1. Available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vowels. Accessed November 6, 2018.Google Scholar
Kodali, Teja. (2015). K means clustering in R [blog post]. December 28. Available at https://www.r-bloggers.com/k-means-clustering-in-r/. Accessed November 6, 2018.Google Scholar
Khon, Mary. (2018). The impact of de facto and de jure segregation on African American English in the New South. In Reaser, J., Wilbanks, E., Wojcik, K., & Wolfram, W. (eds.), Language variety in the New South: Contemporary Perspectives on Change and Variation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 223240.Google Scholar
Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt. (1988). Immigrant children's Swedish—A new variety? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 9(1–2):129140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt. (1998). Language contact in Rinkeby, an immigrant suburb. In Androutsopoulos, J. & Scholz, A. (eds.), Jugendsprache/langue de jeunes/youth language. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. 125148.Google Scholar
Kungliga statistiska centralbyrån [Royal Statistical Bureau]. (1900). Folkräkningen 31 december Göteborg med Lundby, Lunden, Gårda, Krokslätt, Almedal och Nya Varfvet [Census 31 december Gothenburg including Lundby, Lunden, Gårda, Krokslätt, Almedal and Nya Varvet]. Statistisk tidskrift 1903. Stockholm: Royal Statistical Bureau. 129–130.Google Scholar
Labov, William. (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Labov, William. (2014). The role of African Americans in Philadelphia sound change. Language Variation and Change 26(1):119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labov, William, Karen, Mark, & Miller, Corey. (1991). Near-mergers and the suspension of phonemic contrast. Language Variation and Change 3(1):3374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leinonen, Therese. (2010). An acoustic analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Groningen.Google Scholar
Oushiro, Livia. (2016). Social and structural constraints in lectal cohesion. Lingua 172–173:116130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paliy, Oleg, & Shankar, Vijay. (2016). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in microbial ecology. Molecular Ecology 25:10321057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plomp, Reinier, Pols, Louis C. W., & Van de Geer, John P. (1967). Dimensional analysis of vowel spectra. Journal of Acoustic Society of America 41(3):707712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed November 6, 2018.Google Scholar
Riad, Tomas. (2014). The phonology of Swedish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Savage, Mike, Devine, Fiona, Cunningham, Niall, Taylor, Mark, Li, Yaojun, Hjellbrekke, Johs., Le Roux, Brigitte, Friedman, Sam, & Miles, Andrew. (2013). A new model of social class? Findings from the BBC's Great British Class Survey Experiment. Sociology 47(2):219250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schötz, Susanne, Frid, Johan, Löfqvist, Anders, Gustafsson, Lars, & Eklund, Robert. (2013). Functional data analysis of tongue articulation in Gothenburg and Malmöhus Swedish /i:, y:, u-:/. In Bimbot, F. (ed.), 14th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2013): Speech in life sciences and human societies. Red Hook: Curran Associates, International Speech Communication Association. 13251329.Google Scholar
Statistik och Analys stadsledningskontoret Göteborgs Stad [Statistics and Analysis Office of the City Leadership Office]. (2017). Statistikdatabas för Göteborgs Stad [Statistical data base for the city of Gothenburg]. Available at: http://statistik.goteborg.se/. Accessed April 7, 2017.Google Scholar
Svensson, Gudrun. (2009). Diskurspartiklar hos ungdomar i mångspråkiga miljöer i Malmö [Discourse particles among youth in multilingual environments in Malmö]. Ph.D. dissertation, Lund University.Google Scholar
Tingsell, Sofia. (2007). Reflexivt och personligt pronomen: Anaforisk syftning hos ungdomar I flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer [Reflexive and personal pronouns: Anaphoric reference among young in multilingual urban environments]. Ph.D. dissertation, Gothenburg, University of Gothenburg.Google Scholar
Weinreich, Uriel, Labov, William, & Herzog, Marvin I. (1968). Empirical foundations for a theory of language change: Directions for Historical Linguistics: A symposium. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Wiese, Hieke, & Rehbein, Ines. (2016). Coherence in new urban dialects: A case study. Lingua 172–173:4561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Segregated vowels: Language variation and dialect features among Gothenburg youth
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *