Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-bjz6k Total loading time: 0.595 Render date: 2022-05-17T09:01:22.255Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

What about the teacher?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2021

Carol Griffiths*
Affiliation:
ELT, Girne American University, Girne, North Cyprus Auckland Institute of Studies, Auckland, New Zealand
*
Corresponding author. Email: carolgriffiths5@gmail.com

Extract

Given that I have been a teacher of one kind or another for practically all of my working life, starting as a high school English teacher before moving into TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages), I would like to suggest (in all modesty, of course!) that I am in a good position to understand the stresses of the job. In this position paper, I would like to try to explain the background to the issues of teacher stress, to identify contemporary problem areas, to suggest some possible ways to address the problems, and also to explain why tackling teacher stress is so important – both for teachers themselves, and also for the other stakeholders, especially the learners. Although this article draws essentially on the experience of language teachers and related literature, many of the issues described could apply to teachers of any subject at any level anywhere, a point that will be taken up again when suggesting areas for further research.

Type
First Person Singular
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Atmaca, C., Rızaoğlu, F., Türkdoğan, T., & Yaylı, D. (2020). An emotion focused approach in predicting teacher burnout and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 90, Article 103025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barkhuizen, G. (Ed.) (2017). Reflections on language teacher identity research. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Benson, P. (2013). Teaching and researching autonomy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, P., & Voller, P. (Eds.) (1997). Autonomy and independence in language learning. London, UK and New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Borg, S. (2009). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London, UK: Continuum.Google Scholar
Borg, S., & Sanchez, H. S. (2020). Cognition/beliefs and good language teachers. In Griffiths, C., & Tajeddin, Z. (Eds.), Lessons from good language teachers (pp. 1627). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Briner, R., & Dewberry, C. (2007). Staff wellbeing is key to school success. A research study into the links between staff wellbeing and school performance. London, UK: Worklife Support.Google Scholar
Burns, A. (1992). Teacher beliefs and their influence on classroom practice. Prospect, 7(3), 5666.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. (1981). Twenty-five years of research on foreign language aptitude. In Diller, K. C. (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 83118). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Chamot, A. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 7183). London, UK: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Coates, T., & Thoreson, C. (1976). Teacher anxiety: A review with recommendations. Review of Educational Research, 46(2), 159184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, A. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. London, UK and New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
Collins, S. (2020, April 16). Covid 19 coronavirus: Teachers angry that they are being asked to become ‘babysitters’. nzherald.co.nz.Google Scholar
Dam, L. (1995). Autonomy: From theory to classroom practice. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.Google Scholar
Dao, P., & Iwashita, N. (2018). Teacher mediation in L2 classroom task-based interaction. System, 74, 183193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2010). The New lives of teachers. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dikilitaş, K. (2020). Teacher autonomy and good language teachers. In Griffiths, C., & Tajeddin, Z. (Eds.), Lessons from good language teachers (pp. 5466). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dikilitaş, K., & Griffiths, C. (2017). Developing teacher autonomy through action research. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). Psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mulwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Duff, P. (2013). Identity, agency, and second language acquisition. In Gass, S., & Mackey, A. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 410426). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Farrell, T. (2015). Reflecting on teacher-student relations in TESOL. ELT Journal, 69(1), 2634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foley, C., & Murphy, M. (2015). Burnout in irish teachers: Investigating the role of individual differences, work environment and coping factors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 50, 4655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, D., & Richards, J. (Eds.) (1996). Teacher learning in language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Furrer, C., Skinner, E., & Pitzer, J. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday motivational resilience. National Society for the Study of Education, 113(1), 101123.Google Scholar
Gabryś-Barker, D., & Gałajda, D. (Eds.) (2018). Positive psychology perspectives on foreign language learning and teaching (second language learning and teaching). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
Gao, X., & Zhang, L. (2011). Joining forces for synergy: Agency and metacognition as interrelated theoretical perspectives on learner autonomy. In Murray, G., Gao, X., & Lamb, T. (Eds.), Identity, motivation and autonomy in language learning (pp. 2541). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gkonou, C., Dewaele, J., & King, J. (Eds.) (2020). The emotional rollercoaster of language teaching. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Glazer, J. (2018). Learning from those who no longer teach: Viewing teacher attrition through a resistance lens. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 6271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gold, Y., & Roth, R. (1993). Teachers managing stress & preventing burnout. London, UK and Washington, DC: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
Green, S., & Ross, M. (1996). A theory-based measure of coping strategies used by teachers: The problems in teaching scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12/3, 315325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, C. (2012). Focus on the teacher. ELTJ, 66(4), 468476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, C., & Sönmez, G. (2020). Burnout and good language teachers. In Griffiths, C., & Tajeddin, Z. (Eds.), Lessons from good language teachers (pp. 8094). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, C., & Soruç, A. (2020). Individual differences in language learning. London, UK: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, C., & Tajeddin, Z. (Eds.) (2020). Lessons from good language teachers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grundy, P. (1999). From model to muddle. ELT Journal, 53(1), 5455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching (4th ed.). London, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
Harmer, J. (2012). Essential teacher knowledge: Core concepts in English language teaching. Harlow, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
Hattie, J. (1999). Influences on student learning. Inaugural lecture. University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence? Paper presented at the Building Teacher Quality: What does the research tell us ACER Research Conference, Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved from http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2003/4/Google Scholar
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. London, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hattie, J., & Anderman, E. (Eds.) (2020). Visible learning guide to student achievement. London, UK and New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Herman, K., & Reinke, W. (2015). Stress management for teachers: A proactive guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Hiver, P., & Dörnyei, Z. (2017). Language teacher immunity: A double-edged sword. Applied Linguistics, 38(3), 405423.Google Scholar
Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Hong, J. Y. (2010). Pre-service and beginning teachers’ professional identity and its relation to dropping out of the profession. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8), 15301543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, J., & Benson, P. (2013). Autonomy, agency and identity in foreign and second language education. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 36(1), 1728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, M. (1977). Counter irritants to teaching. Paper presented at the American Association of School Administrators annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV.Google Scholar
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & May, H. (2016). Do accountability policies push teachers out? Educational Leadership, 73(8), 4449.Google Scholar
Kaunitz, N., Spokane, A., Lissitz, R., & Strein, W. (1986). Stress in student teachers: A multidimensional scaling analysis of elirefd stressful situations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2(2), 169180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinsella, K. (1995). Understanding and empowering diverse learners. In Reid, J. (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 170195). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational Research, 29(2), 146152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2019). On language learner agency: A complex dynamic systems theory perspective. Modern Language Journal, 103, 6167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.Google Scholar
Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2), 175181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Little, D., Dam, L., & Legenhausen, L. (2017). Language learner autonomy: Theory practice and research. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Macdonald, D. (1999). Teacher attrition: A review of literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15(8), 835848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2016). Setting an agenda for positive psychology in SLA: Theory, practice and research. Modern Language Journal, 103(1), 262274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacIntyre, P., Ross, J., Talbot, K., Mercer, S., Gregersen, T., & Banga, C. (2019). Stressors, personality and wellbeing among language teachers. System, 82, 2638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2(2), 99111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mearns, J., & Cain, J. (2003). Relationships between teachers’ occupational stress and their burnout and distress: Roles of coping and negative mood regulation expectancies. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 16(1), 7182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, S. (2018). Psychology for language learning: Spare a thought for the teacher. Language Teaching, 51(4), 504525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, S., & Gregersen, T. (2020). Teacher wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mercer, S., & Kostoulas, A. (Eds.) (2018). Language teacher psychology. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Miller, E., Kayi-Aydar, H., Varghese, M., & Vitanova, G. (Eds.) (2018). Interdisciplinarity in language teacher agency: Theoretical and analytical explorations. System, 79(special issue), 1–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moè, A., & Katz, I. (2020). Self-compassionate teachers are more autonomy supportive and structuring whereas self-derogating teachers are more controlling and chaotic: The mediating role of need satisfaction and burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 96, 103173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, G. (1999). Autonomy and language learning in a simulated environment. System, 27(3), 295308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norton, B. (2017). Learner investment and language teacher identity. In Barkhuizen, G. (Ed.), Reflections on language teacher identity research (pp. 8086). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centred curriculum. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oolbekkink-Marchand, H., Hadar, L., Smith, K., Helleve, I., & Ulvik, M. (2017). Teachers’ perceived professional space and their agency. Teaching and Teacher Education, 62, 3746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York, NY: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Oxford, R. (1993). Style analysis survey (SAS). Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama.Google Scholar
Oxford, R., & Amerstorfer, C. (Eds.) (2018). Situated strategy use: Language learning strategies and individual learner characteristics. New York, NY: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
Pawlak, M. (Ed.) (2012). New perspectives on individual differences in language learning and teaching. Berlin, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pogere, E., López-Sangil, C., García-Señorán, M., & González, A. (2019). Teachers’ job stressors and coping strategies: Their structural relationships with emotional exhaustion and autonomy support. Teaching and Teacher Education, 85, 269280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, J. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 87111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reid, J. (Ed.) (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
Rogers, B. (1995). Behaviour management: A whole-school approach. Gosford, Australia: Scholastic.Google Scholar
Rogers, B. (2012). The essential guide to managing teacher stress. London, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
Rogers, J. (2019). Leading for change through whole-school social-emotional learning: Strategies to build a positive school culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
Rose, H. (2019). Dismantling the ivory tower in TESOL: A renewed call for teaching-informed research. TESOL Quarterly, 53(3), 895905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubin, J. (1975). What the ‘good language learner’ can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 4151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudolph, N., Selvi, A., & Yazan, B. (Eds.) (2020). The complexity of identity and interaction in language education. Bristol, UK: Multilingual MattersCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saatcioglu, A. (2020). Teacher persistence as a function of teacher-job fit: Evidence from a large suburban district, 2010–2015. Teaching and Teacher Education, 94, 103121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sammons, P., Day, C., Kington, A., Gu, Q., Stobart, G., & Smees, R. (2007). Exploring variations in teachers’ work, lives and their effects on pupils: Key findings and implications from a longitudinal mixed-method study. British Educational Research Journal, 33(5), 681701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santoro, D. (2018). Demoralized: Why teachers leave the profession they love and how they can stay. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Schonfeld, I. (1992). A longitudinal study of occupational stressors and depressive symptoms in first-year female teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 8(2), 151158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seligman, M. (2004). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York, NY: Atria.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London, UK: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Stern, H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 34(31/4), 304318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, G. (2018). Positive mindset habits for teachers. Mountain House, CA: Red Lotus Books.Google Scholar
Swan, A. (2015). Redefining English language teacher identity. In Swan, A., Aboshiha, P., & Holliday, A. (Eds.), En)countering native-speakerism (pp. 5974). London, England: Springer.Google Scholar
Taylor, M., McLean, L., Bryce, C., Abry, T., & Granger, K. (2019). The influence of multiple life stressors during Teacher Training on Burnout and Career Optimism in the first year of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 86, Article 102910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toohey, K., & Norton, B. (2003). Learner autonomy as agency in sociocultural settings. In Palfreyman, D., & Smith, R. (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures (pp. 5872). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tudor, I. (1996). Learner-centredness as language education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Van Lier, L. (2010). The ecology of language learning: Practice to theory, theory to practice. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wadden, P., & McGovern, S. (1991). The quandary of negative class participation: Coming to terms with misbehaviour in the language classroom. ELT Journal, 45(2), 119127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Washington, C. (2016). Teach and take time for You: Strategies and tips to reduce stress and burnout. Los Angeles, CA: Castel Publications.Google Scholar
Wenden, A. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Wilson, K. (2007). Facilitator talk in EAP reading classes. ELT Journal, 62(4), 366374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods, D. (1996). Teacher cognition in language teaching: Beliefs, decision-making and classroom practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

What about the teacher?
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

What about the teacher?
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

What about the teacher?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *