Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-b4ls7 Total loading time: 0.29 Render date: 2022-07-04T03:57:44.426Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Rethinking format: An examination of requests

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2016

Barbara Fox
Affiliation:
Department of Linguistics, University of Colorado, Boulder, University of Colorado, Campus Box 295, Boulder, CO 80309, USAbarbara.fox@colorado.edu
Trine Heinemann
Affiliation:
Finnish Centre of Excellence in Intersubjectivity in Interaction, University of Helsinki, Finland, P.O. Box 4 (Vuorikatu 3), 00014 University of Helsinki, Finlandtrine.heinemann@helsinki.fi

Abstract

This study explores the formulation of requests in an American English-speaking shoe repair shop. Taking prior work on request formats as our starting point, we explore the two primary syntactic moods (declarative and interrogative) in our collection and two of the commonly noted subtypes of these moods, need/want-declaratives and can-interrogatives. While our findings in very general terms match those of previous studies, we also find significant grammatical variation within each of these formats, and note interactional uses for each variation. Our examination yields insight into facets of requesting that were previously undescribed. We offer an Emergent Grammar perspective on the complexity of lexicosyntax in the social action of requesting. (Requests, formats, Emergent Grammar, Conversation Analysis, American English, service encounters)*

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bybee, Joan (2006). From usage to grammar: The mind's response to repetition. Language 82(4):711–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bybee, Joan (2010). Language, usage and cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bybee, Joan, & Hopper, Paul (eds.) (2001). Frequency and the emergence of structure. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Childs, Carrie (2012a). Directing and requesting: Two interactive uses of the mental state terms want and need . Text & Talk 32(6):727–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Childs, Carrie (2012b). “I'm not X, I just want Y”: Formulating “wants” in interaction. Discourse Studies 14(2):116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curl, Traci S. (2006). Offers of assistance: Constraints on syntactic design. Journal of Pragmatics 38:1257–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curl, Traci S., & Drew, Paul (2008). Contingency and action: A comparison of two forms of requesting. Research on Language and Social Interaction 41(2):129–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drew, Paul, & Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth (2014). Requesting: From speech act to recruitment. In Drew, Paul & Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth (eds.), Requesting in social interaction, 134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Fox, Barbara (2000). Micro-syntax in conversation. Paper presented at the first EURESCO Interactional Linguistics conference, Spa, Belgium, May 2000.Google Scholar
Fox, Barbara (2007). Principles shaping grammatical practices: An exploration. Discourse Studies 9(3):299318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Barbara (2015). On the notion of pre-request. Discourse Studies 17(1):4163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Barbara, & Heinemann, Trine (2015a). Turn pre-emptions at the shoe repair shop. Paper presented at the International Pragmatics Association, Antwerp, Belgium, July 2015.Google Scholar
Fox, Barbara, & Heinemann, Trine (2015b). The alignment of manual and verbal displays in requests for the repair of an object. Research on Language and Social Interaction 48(3):342–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Barbara, & Heinemann, Trine (2015c). Dropping off or picking up?: Professionals’ use of objects as a resource for determining the purpose of a customer encounter. Paper presented at the Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice conference, Milan, Italy, November 2015.Google Scholar
Fox, Barbara, & Heinemann, Trine (2016). The problem with x: Rethinking request formats. Boulder: University of Boulder, Colorado, ms.Google Scholar
Goodwin, Charles (1996). Transparent vision. In Ochs, Elinor, Schegloff, Emanuel, & Thompson, Sandra (eds.), Interaction and grammar, 370404. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodwin, Charles, & Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1987). Concurrent operations on talk: Notes on the interactive organization of assessments. IPrA Papers in Pragmatics 1(1):154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodwin, Marjorie Harness (1980). Directive-response speech sequences in girls’ and boys’ task activities. In McConnell-Ginet, Sally, Borker, Ruth, & Furman, Nelly (eds.), Women and language in literature and society, 157–73. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Heinemann, Trine (2006). ‘Will you or can't you?’: Displaying entitlement in interrogative requests. Journal of Pragmatics 38:1081–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopper, Paul (1987). Emergent grammar. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 139–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopper, Paul (1998). Emergent grammar. In Tomasello, Michael (ed.), The new psychology of language, 155–75. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Hopper, Paul (2011). Emergent grammar and temporality in interactional linguistics. In Auer, Peter & Pfänder, Stefan (eds.), Constructions: Emerging and emergent, 2244. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Hopper, Paul (2013). Emergent grammar. In Gee, James Paul & Handford, Michael (eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis, 301314. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Houtkoop-Steenstra, Hanneke (1987). Establishing agreement: An analysis of proposal-acceptance sequences. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
Jefferson, Gail (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In Lerner, Gene H. (ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation, 1331. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendrick, Kobin H., & Drew, Paul (2016). Recruitment: Offers, requests and the organization of assistance in interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction 49:119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuroshima, Satomi (2010). Another look at the service encounter: Progressivity, intersubjectivity, and trust in a Japanese sushi restaurant. Journal of Pragmatics 42:856–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laurier, Eric (2014). The graphic transcript: Poaching comic book grammar for inscribing the visual, spatial and temporal aspects of action. Geography Compass 8(4):235–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Seung-Hee (2009). Extended requesting: Interaction and collaboration in the production and specification of requests. Journal of Pragmatics 41:1248–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, Seung-Hee (2011). Managing nongranting of customer's requests in commercial service encounters. Research on Language and Social Interaction 44(2):109–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levinson, Stephen C. (2013). Action formation and ascription. In Stivers, Tanya & Sidnell, Jack (eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis, 103–30. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lindström, Anna (2005). Language as social action. A study of how senior citizens request assistance with practical tasks in the Swedish home help service. In Hakulinen, Auli & Selting, Margret (eds.), Syntax and lexis in conversation: Studies on the use of linguistic resources in talk-in-interaction, 209–30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mandelbaum, Jenny, & Pomerantz, Anita (1991). What drives social action In Tracy, Karen (ed.), Understanding face-to-face interaction, 151–66. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Olsher, David (2004). Talk and gesture: The embodied completion of sequential actions in spoken interaction. In Gardner, Rod & Wagner, Johannes (eds.), Second language conversations, 221–45. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Reber, Elisabeth (2012). Affectivity in interaction: Sound objects in English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, Giovanni (2012). Bilateral and unilateral requests: The use of imperatives and mi x? interrogatives in Italian. Discourse Processes 49:426–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rossi, Giovanni (2015a). The request system in Italian interaction. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen dissertation.Google Scholar
Rossi, Giovanni (2015b). Responding to pre-requests: The organization of hai x ‘do you have x’ sequences in Italian. Journal of Pragmatics 82:522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schegloff, Emanuel (1982). Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of ‘uh huh’ and other things that come between sentences. In Tannen, Deborah (ed.), Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics, 7193. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Sorjonen, Marja-Leena, & Raevaara, Liisa (2014). On the grammatical form of requests at the convenience store: Requesting as embodied action. In Drew, Paul & Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth (eds.), Requesting in social interaction, 241–66. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Stivers, Tanya (2011). Morality and question design: ‘Of course’ as contesting a presupposition of askability. In Stivers, Tanya, Mondada, Lorenza, & Steensig, Jakob (eds.), The morality of knowledge in conversation, 82106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, Sandra; Fox, Barbara; & Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth (2015). Grammar in everyday talk: Building responsive actions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinkhuyzen, Erik, & Szymanski, Margaret (2005). Would you like to do it yourself? Service requests and their non-granting responses. In Richards, Keith & Seedhouse, Paul (eds.), Applying conversation analysis, 91105. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wootton, Anthony J. (1981). Two request forms of four year olds. Journal of Pragmatics 5:511–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zinken, Jörg (2015). Contingent control over shared goods: ‘Can I have x’ requests in British English informal interaction. Journal of Pragmatics 82:2338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zinken, Jörg, & Ogiermann, Eva (2011). How to propose an action as an objective necessity: The case of Polish trzeba x (‘one needs to x’). Research on Language and Social Interaction 44(3):263–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Rethinking format: An examination of requests
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Rethinking format: An examination of requests
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Rethinking format: An examination of requests
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *