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In this paper, we describe how predictive models can be positively exploited in abstract argumentation. In particular, we present two main sets of results. On one side, we show that predictive models are effective for performing algorithm selection in order to determine which approach is better to enumerate the preferred extensions of a given argumentation framework. On the other side, we show that predictive models predict significant aspects of the solution to the preferred extensions enumeration problem. By exploiting an extensive set of argumentation framework features—that is, values that summarize a potentially important property of a framework—the proposed approach is able to provide an accurate prediction about which algorithm would be faster on a given problem instance, as well as of the structure of the solution, where the complete knowledge of such structure would require a computationally hard problem to be solved. Improving the ability of existing argumentation-based systems to support human sense-making and decision processes is just one of the possible exploitations of such knowledge obtained in an inexpensive way.
Research on Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) has led to the development of several models, languages, and technologies for programming not only agents, but also their interaction, the application environment where they are situated, as well as the organization in which they participate. Research on those topics moved from agent-oriented programming towards multi-agent-oriented programming (MAOP). A MAS program is then designed and developed using a structured set of concepts and associated first-class design and programming abstractions that go beyond the concepts normally associated with agents. They include those related to environment, interaction, and organization. JaCaMo is a platform for MAOP built on top of three seamlessly integrated dimensions (i.e. structured sets of concepts and associated execution platforms): for programming belief desire intention (BDI) agents, their artefact-based environments, and their normative organizations. The key purpose of our work on JaCaMo is to support programmers in exploring the synergy between these dimensions, providing a comprehensive programming model, as well as a corresponding platform for developing and running MAS. This paper provides a practical overview of MAOP using JaCaMo. We show how emphasizing one particular dimension leads to different solutions to the same problem, and discuss the issues of each of those solutions.
Automated planning has been a continuous field of study since the 1960s, since the notion of accomplishing a task using an ordered set of actions resonates with almost every known activity domain. However, as we move from toy domains closer to the complex real world, these actions become increasingly difficult to codify. The reasons range from intense laborious effort, to intricacies so barely identifiable, that programming them is a challenge that presents itself much later in the process. In such domains, planners now leverage recent advancements in machine learning to learn action models, that is, blueprints of all the actions whose execution effectuates transitions in the system. This learning provides an opportunity for the evolution of the model toward a version more consistent and adapted to its environment, augmenting the probability of success of the plans. It is also a conscious effort to decrease laborious manual coding and increase quality. This paper presents a survey of the machine learning techniques applied for learning planning action models. It first describes the characteristics of learning systems. It then details the learning techniques that have been used in the literature during the past decades, and finally presents some open issues.
Nowadays the composition and formation of effective teams is highly important for both companies to assure their competitiveness and for a wide range of emerging applications exploiting multiagent collaboration (e.g. crowdsourcing, human-agent collaborations). The aim of this article is to provide an integrative perspective on team composition, team formation, and their relationship with team performance. Thus, we review the contributions in both the computer science literature and the organizational psychology literature dealing with these topics. Our purpose is twofold. First, we aim at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the contributions made by these two diverse bodies of research. Second, we aim at identifying cross-fertilization opportunities that help both disciplines benefit from one another. Given the volume of existing literature, our review is not intended to be exhaustive. Instead, we have preferred to focus on the most significant contributions in both fields together with recent contributions that break new ground to spur innovative research.
In this paper, we discuss the potential role of answer set programming (ASP) in the context of approaches to the development of agents and multi-agent systems especially in the realm of Computational Logic. After shortly recalling the main (computational-logic-based) agent-oriented frameworks, we introduce ASP; then, we discuss the usefulness of a potential integration of the two paradigms in a modular heterogeneous framework, and the feasibility of such integration. This also in the more general view of improving and empowering flexibility of agent-oriented frameworks. Relevant literature will be mentioned and discussed. Possible future directions and potential developments will be outlined.
The development of complex systems ensembles that operate in uncertain environments is a major challenge. The reason for this is that system designers are not able to fully specify the system during specification and development and before it is being deployed. Natural swarm systems enjoy similar characteristics, yet, being self-adaptive and being able to self-organize, these systems show beneficial emergent behaviour. Similar concepts can be extremely helpful for artificial systems, especially when it comes to multi-robot scenarios, which require such solution in order to be applicable to highly uncertain real world application. In this article, we present a comprehensive overview over state-of-the-art solutions in emergent systems, self-organization, self-adaptation, and robotics. We discuss these approaches in the light of a framework for multi-robot systems and identify similarities, differences missing links and open gaps that have to be addressed in order to make this framework possible.
Recent proliferation of surveillance systems is mostly attributed to advances in both image-processing techniques and hardware enhancement of smart cameras, as well as the ubiquity of sensor-driven architectures. Owing to these capabilities, new aspects are coming to the forefront. This paper addresses the current state-of-the-art and provides researchers with an overview of existing surveillance solutions, analyzing their properties as a system and drawing attention to relevant challenges when developing, deploying and managing them. Also, some of the more prominent application domains are highlighted here. In an effort to understand the development of the advanced solutions, based on their most distinctive characteristics, we propose a taxonomy for surveillance systems to help classify them and reveal gaps in existing research. We conclude by identifying promising future research lines.
With the growth of the Internet, crowdsourcing has become a popular way to perform intelligence tasks that hitherto would be either performed internally within an organization or not undertaken due to prohibitive costs and the lack of an appropriate communications infrastructure. In crowdsourcing systems, whereby multiple agents are not under the direct control of a system designer, it cannot be assumed that agents will act in a manner that is consistent with the objectives of the system designer or principal agent. In situations whereby agents’ goals are to maximize their return in crowdsourcing systems that offer financial or other rewards, strategies will be adopted by agents to game the system if appropriate mitigating measures are not put in place. The motivational and incentivization research space is quite large; it incorporates diverse techniques from a variety of different disciplines including behavioural economics, incentive theory, and game theory. This paper specifically focusses on game theoretic approaches to the problem in the crowdsourcing domain and places it in the context of the wider research landscape. It provides a survey of incentive engineering techniques that enable the creation of apt incentive structures in a range of different scenarios.