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Manipulating Music at the Court of Elizabeth I

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2020


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1 Gerald Hayes, King's Music: An Anthology (London, 1937), 55. On recollections of Anne Boleyn's reputed musicality, see Edward Lowinsky, ‘A Music Book for Anne Boleyn’, Florilegium historiale: Essays Presented to Wallace K. Ferguson, ed. John Gordon Rowe and W. H. Stockdale (Toronto, 1971), 161–235, repr. in Lowinsky, Music in the Culture of the Renaissance and Other Essays (Chicago, IL, 1989), 483–528; Claudia Maria Knispel, ‘Abschied von dieser Welt: Ein Lautenlied von Anne Boleyn?’, Concerto: Das Magazin für Alte Musik, 14/129 (December–January 1997), 25–9; Janet Pollack, ‘Anne Boleyn, “O Deathe, Rock Me Asleep” (Attributed)’, New Historical Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James Briscoe (Bloomington, IN, 2004), 39; and Lisa Urkevich, ‘Anne Boleyn's French Motet Book, a Childhood Gift: The Question of the Original Owner of MS. 1070 of the Royal College of Music, London, Revisited’, Ars musica septentrionalis: De l'interprétation du patrimoine musical à l'historiographie, ed. Barbara Haggh and Frédéric Billiet, Musiques/Écritures: Série Études (Paris, 2011), 95–120.

2 Francis Elliott Clark, ‘Music in Education’, paper read at the General Federation of Women's Clubs, Hot Springs, AR, 8 May 1918, Music Supervisors’ Journal, 5/2 (November 1918), 12.

3 John Playford, A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Musick (London, 1667), sig. A6r.

4 John Hawkins, A General History of the Science and Practice of Music, rev. edn, with the author's posthumous notes (London, 1853; repr. New York, 1963), 455–6; see also pp. 535, 542–3 and 565–6.

5 William Chappell, The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of the Olden Time, 2 vols. (London, 1859; repr. New York, 1965), i, 98–204.

6 Herbert Antcliffe, ‘British History and British Music’, Musical Times, 61/929 (1 July 1920), 474–7 (p. 476).

7 Jeremy Smith, ‘Music and Late Elizabethan Politics: The Identities of Oriana and Diana’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 58 (2005), 507–58. See also, for example, Lillian Ruff and D. Arnold Wilson, 'The Madrigal, the Lute Song, and Elizabethan Politics’, Past and Present, 44 (1969), 3–51; Kristine K. Forney, ‘A Gift of Madrigals and Chansons: The Winchester Partbooks and the Courtship of Elizabeth I by Erik XIV of Sweden’, Journal of Musicology, 17 (1999), 50–75; Susan Anderson, ‘Music and Power at the English Court, 1575–1624’ (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leeds, 2006); Jeremy Smith, ‘Music and the Cult of Elizabeth: The Politics of Panegyric and Sound’, ‘Noyses, Sounds and Sweet Aires’: Music in Early Modern England, ed. Jessie Ann Owens (Washington DC, 2006), 62–77.

8 Thomas Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (London, 1597), esp. ‘Annotations necessary for the understanding of the Booke’, sig. ¶r–v.

9 See John Knox, The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstruous Regiment [sic] of Women (Geneva, 1558).

10 See, for example, Distaves and Dames: Renaissance Treatises for and about Women, ed. Diane Bornstein (Delmar, NT, 1978); The Feminist Controversy of the Renaissance, ed. Bornstein (Delmar, NT, 1980); Joan Kelly, ‘Early Feminist Theory and the Querelle des femmes, 1400–1789’, Women, History and Theory: The Essays of Joan Kelly, ed. Kelly (Chicago, IL, 1984), 65–109; Linda Woodbridge, Women and the English Renaissance: Literature and the Nature of Womankind, 1540–1620 (Urbana, IL, 1984); and Katherine Usher Henderson and Barbara F. McManus, Half Humankind: Contexts and Texts of the Controvery about Women in England, 1540–1640 (Urbana, IL, 1985).

11 ‘Queen Elizabeth's Armada Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, August 9, 1588’, Elizabeth I: Collected Works, ed. Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller and Mary Beth Rose (Chicago, IL, and London, 2000), 325–6 (p. 326). See also Thomas Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, MA, 1990), 63–113, and Linda Phyllis Austern, ‘“Alluring the Auditorie to Effeminacie”: Music and the Idea of the Feminine in Early Modern England’, Music and Letters, 74 (1993), 343–54.

12 Andrew Ashbee, ‘Groomed for Service: Musicians in the Privy Chamber at the English Court, c.1495–1558’, Early Music, 25 (1997), 185–97; Theodor Dumitrescu, The Early Tudor Court and International Musical Relations (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2004), esp. pp. 31–116; Dietrich Helms, ‘Henry VIII's Book: Teaching Music to Royal Children’, Musical Quarterly, 92 (2009), 118–35.

13 See, for instance, John Case, The Praise of Musicke: wherein Besides the Antiquitie, Dignitie, Delectation, & Use Thereof in Civill Matters, is also Declared the Sober and Lawfull Use of the Same in the Congregation and Church of God (Oxford, 1586); Case, Apologia musices tam vocalis quam instrumentalis et mixtae (Oxford, 1588); Don Harrán, In Defense of Music: The Case for Music as Argued by a Singer and Scholar of the Late Fifteenth Century (Lincoln, NE, 1989); Harrán, ‘The Musical Encomium: Its Origins, Components and Implications’, Revista de musicología, 16 (1993), 2187–97; and On the Dignity and the Effects of Music: Two Fifteenth-Century Treatises [by] Egidius Carlerius and Johannes Tinctoris, ed. Reinhard Strohm and J. Donald Cullington (London, 1996).

14 See John Stevens, Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court (London, 1961), 280; Lowinsky, ‘A Music Book for Anne Boleyn’, 502–3; H. Colin Slim, A Gift of Madrigals and Motets (Chicago, IL, 1972); and Nicolas Bell and David Skinner, Music for King Henry: BL Royal MS 11 E XI (London, 2009).

15 See, for example, Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction, 172, and Thomas Ravenscroft, A Briefe Discourse Of the true (but neglected) use of Charact'ring the Degrees (London, 1614), sig. A3v.

16 Baldessare Castiglione, The Courtyer, trans. Thomas Hoby (London, 1561), sig. I2r.

17 William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream, I.i.28–33.

18 Case, The Praise of Musicke, 3. See also Linda Phyllis Austern, ‘“My Mother Musicke”: Music and Early Modern Fantasies of Embodiment’, Maternal Measures: Figuring Caregivers in the Early Modern Period, ed. Naomi J. Miller and Naomi Yavneh (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2000), 239–81 (pp. 239–41).

19 See Philippe Ariès, introduction to A History of Private Life, ed. Ariès and Georges Duby, 5 vols. (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1987–91), iii: Passions of the Renaissance, ed. Roger Charier, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (1989), 1–11; Jürgen Habermas, Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trans. Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence (Cambridge, MA, 1989), 5–6; Simon Thurley, The Royal Palaces of Tudor England (New Haven, CT, and London, 1993), 113–43; and Lena Cowin Orlin, Locating Privacy in Tudor London (Oxford, 2007), 9–11, 105–11 and 297.

20 See Patricia Fumerton, ‘“Secret” Arts: Elizabethan Miniatures and Sonnets’, Representations, 15 (1986), 57–97.

21 [James Melville], The Memoires of Sir James Melvil of Hal-Hill: Containing an Impartial Account of the most Remarkable Affairs of State During the last Age, not mention'd by other Historians: most particularly Relating to the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, and King James [] Now published from the Original Manuscript By George Scott, Gent. (London, 1683), 50. See also, for instance, Hayes, King's Music, 55; Rosemary Anne Sisson, ‘The Marriage Game’, Elizabeth R, directed by Herbert Wise (DVD, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972); Elizabethan People: State and Society, ed. Joel Hurstfield and Alan G. R. Smith (London, 1978), 15; Christopher Hogwood, Music at Court (London, 1980), 33–4; and David Scott, ‘Elizabeth I, Queen of England’, New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Oxford Music Online, <> (accessed 15 February 2016).

22 See Scott, ‘Elizabeth I, Queen of England’.

23 Roy Strong, The Cult of Elizabeth: Elizabethan Portraiture and Pageantry (London, 1977), 52.

24 Philip Stubbes, The Anatomy of Abuses (London, 1583), sig. D5r–v.

25 ‘Queen Elizabeth's Armada Speech to the Troops at Tilbury’, 325.

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