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Confronting Opera in the 1960s: Birtwistle's Punch and Judy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2020

Abstract

Birtwistle's Punch and Judy arrived at a crucial moment for new opera. It premièred in 1968 at the Aldeburgh Festival, the home of a vision of British opera that Punch and Judy seemed actively to confront. However, Punch and Judy also engaged closely with operatic traditions and institutions, and while its Aldeburgh première is remembered as a scandalous provocation, a closer look at this event suggests that the opera was welcomed as a subtle intervention into the British operatic scene rather than a repudiation of it. The opera itself, moreover, performs a similar sense of revolt as inseparable from tradition, of individuality as inseparable from institutions and audiences, and of the supports for artistic production as necessarily also constraints.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 The Royal Musical Association

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Footnotes

This article originated in a talk for the ‘Birtwistle at 80’ study day (sponsored by the Institute of Musical Research) at the Barbican, London, in 2014. I am grateful to Jonathan Cross for inviting me to participate, and to the other participants in that event, especially David Beard. The article also benefited from stimulating discussion at the Oxford Faculty of Music, where it was delivered as a colloquium, and from the suggestions of the anonymous readers for this journal. Thanks also to the staff at the Britten–Pears Foundation, especially Nicholas Clark.

References

1 Pierre Boulez, ‘Opera Houses? – Blow Them Up!’, Opera, 19 (1968), 440–50. Originally published as ‘Sprengt die Opernhäuser in die Luft’, Der Spiegel, 40 (25 September 1967), 166–74.

2 Michael Nyman, ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, Michael Nyman: Collected Writings, ed. Pwyll ap Siôn (Aldershot, 2013), 38–41 (p. 41; originally published in The Listener, 10 October 1968, 481); see also ‘Humphrey Searle's Hamlet: The Composer Talks to Martin Kingsbury’, Musical Times, 110 (1969), 369–71 (p. 369). In both cases, however, this idea of a ‘death sentence’ on opera is immediately complicated or contested by the authors.

3 Boulez, ‘Opera Houses?’, 442. On the middlebrow in relationship to musical modernism, see Ian Wellens, Music on the Frontline: Nicolas Nabokov's Struggle against Communism and Middlebrow Culture (Aldershot, 2002), 99–113; Danielle Fossler-Lussier, Music Divided: Bartók's Legacy in Cold War Culture (Berkeley, CA, 2007), 83–5; and Christopher Chowrimootoo, ‘Reviving the Middlebrow, or: Deconstructing Modernism from the Inside’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 139 (2014), 187–93.

4 Harold Rosenthal, introduction to Boulez, ‘Opera Houses?’, 440.

5 The Hamburg Staatsoper was originally to present the Searle and Goehr operas in Edinburgh, but these were replaced by repertory works because the available theatre was considered technically inadequate for the newer productions (‘New Operas Dropped from Festival’, Glasgow Herald, 27 January 1968, 41). The Edinburgh Festival frequently hosted visiting opera companies, including perhaps most famously the Frankfurt Opera in 1971, in a particularly scandalous production of Prokofiev's The Fiery Angel featuring topless ‘nuns’. Angela Bartie, The Edinburgh Festivals: Culture and Society in Post-War Britain (Edinburgh, 2013), 209.

6 Boulez, ‘Opera Houses?’, 442–3.

7 John Payne Collier, Punch and Judy: A Short History with the Original Dialogue (London, 1828).

8 David Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre (Cambridge, 2012), 43.

9 Nyman makes a similar connection between Punch and Boulez, in ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 41.

10 Stephen Pruslin, Punch and Judy programme note, first draft, 15 March 1968, English Opera Group (hereafter EOG) Admin File: Punch and Judy, Britten–Pears Foundation, Aldeburgh (hereafter BPF). Birtwistle himself was engaged with the figure of Pierrot by way of Pierrot lunaire: he had founded the Pierrot Players to mimic the ensemble in Schoenberg's piece, in response to a commission from the Austrian Institute, and had written Monodrama – a close relation of Punch and Judy – for the ensemble in 1967. Michael Hall, Harrison Birtwistle (London, 1984), 50. On musical relationships between Punch and Judy and Pierrot lunaire, see also Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 43–51.

11 Joan Rothfuss, Topless Cellist: The Improbable Life of Charlotte Moorman (Cambridge, MA, 2014), 141–4.

12 On Birtwistle and ‘the post-war disapproval of opera – that bourgeois genre par excellence’, see Jonathan Cross, Harrison Birtwistle: Man, Mind, Music (Ithaca, NY, 2000), 70. On Birtwistle and avant-garde ‘ambivalence about the possibility of dramatic expression’, see Robert Adlington, The Music of Harrison Birtwistle (Cambridge, 2000), 6–7. On Birtwistle and avant-garde ‘opposition’ to opera, see Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 5–6.

13 On the avant-garde's engagement with opera, also see Arman Schwartz, ‘A Note from the Guest Editor’, Opera Quarterly, 30 (2014), 1–4 (pp. 2–3).

14 Joan Peyser, To Boulez and Beyond, rev. edn (Lanham, MD, 2008), 228. Even in the course of ‘Opera Houses?’ Boulez discussed writing a theatrical work himself, expressed admiration for Peter Brook (who had briefly been ‘director of productions’ at the Royal Opera House) and suggested smaller, experimental stages of the kind that many opera houses went on to create (Boulez, ‘Opera Houses?’, 442, 445, 446). After Boulez's interview, he was invited by the director of the Paris Opera, Jean Vilar, to institute reforms; it was only when Vilar resigned in solidarity with the May 1968 protests that the project collapsed and Boulez left in order to direct the BBC Symphony Orchestra (Peyser, To Boulez and Beyond, 228–9). Beard also points out that ‘it would be misleading to suggest that Boulez was unambiguously opposed to opera or music theatre’. Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 5.

15 This claim is related to David Beard's useful suggestion (discussed below) that ‘the “dual drives of revolutionary and conservative forces” are fundamental to Punch’, but different in that Beard locates these drives within parody. Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 74, quoting Linda Hutcheon, A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms (Chicago, IL, 2000), 26.

16 Pierre Bourdieu, ‘Intellectual Field and Creative Project’, Social Science Information, 8 (April 1969), 89–119 (p. 110). Translated by Sian France from ‘Champ intellectuel et projet créateur’, Les temps modernes, 246 (1966), 865–906. See also Georgina Born, Rationalizing Culture: IRCAM, Boulez, and the Institutionalization of the Musical Avant-Garde (Berkeley, CA, 1995), 28.

17 Born, Rationalizing Culture, 29; Benjamin Piekut, ‘Actor-Networks in Music History: Clarifications and Critiques’, Twentieth-Century Music, 11 (2014), 191–215 (p. 212).

18 On this narrative, see Matthew Riley, ‘Introduction’, British Music and Modernism, 1895–1960, ed. Riley (Farnham, 2010), 1–11 (p. 1), and Philip Rupprecht, British Musical Modernism: The Manchester Group and their Contemporaries (Cambridge, 2015), 4–5. The narrative can already be found in Andrew Porter, ‘Some New British Composers’, Musical Quarterly, 51 (1965), 12–21; also published in Contemporary Music in Europe, ed. Paul Henry Lang and Nathan Broder (London, 1966), 12–21.

19 Virginia Anderson, ‘“1968” and the Experimental Revolution in Britain’, Music and Protest in 1968, ed. Beate Kutschke and Barley Norton (Cambridge, 2013), 171–87 (p. 175). Anderson writes of the ‘Manchester School’ composers: ‘As a consequence of their ties to this tradition, these composers played a negligible part in the 1968 revolution. If anything, they formed a tangential association with “swinging” London, an establishment culture that took in mainstream pop, Bond films and the Playboy Club, as well as couture, design, publishing and government-supported high arts.’

20 Dai Griffiths, ‘On Grammar Schoolboy Music’, Music, Culture, and Society: A Reader, ed. Derek B. Scott (Oxford, 2000), 143–5, originally published as ‘Genre: Grammar Schoolboy Music’, Critical Musicology Newsletter, 3 (July 1995); Rupprecht, British Musical Modernism, 6–8, quoting Percy Cater, ‘The Dull Young Things of the Fifties’, Daily Mail, 10 January 1956, 3.

21 These doubts are effectively summarized (and countered) by Robert Adlington in his edited collection on politics and the 1960s avant-garde (a collection from which British music is conspicuously absent): ‘Introduction’, Sound Commitments: Avant-Garde Music and the Sixties, ed. Adlington (Oxford, 2009), 3–14 (p. 4).

22 On similar tensions within the French ‘modernist avant-garde’, see Born, Rationalizing Culture, 4.

23 ‘A Task for the ICA: A First Statement by Michael Kustow’, ICA Bulletin, 178 (February 1968), 2–7 (p. 6), also published in Anne Massey and Gregor Muir, Institute of Contemporary Arts 1946–1968 (London, 2014), 150–1 (p. 151).

24 Porter, ‘Some New British Composers’, 12.

25 Ibid., 16.

26 Richard Rodney Bennett, ‘Anti-Camp Composer’, The Observer, 21 February 1965, 23.

27 Michael Nyman, ‘Minimal Music’, Michael Nyman: Collected Writings, ed. ap Siôn, 41–3 (p. 42; originally published in The Spectator, 11 October 1968, 518–19).

28 Michael Nyman, Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond (London, 1974); Benjamin Piekut, ‘Indeterminacy, Free Improvisation, and the Mixed Avant-Garde: Experimental Music in London, 1965–1975’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 67 (2014), 769–842 (p. 772). In the opening pages of his book, Nyman notes that his choice to focus ‘on the differences between the experimental and the avant-garde’ was a strategic one, and could be balanced by attention to the overlaps between them (p. 2). On the category of experimentalism, also see Benjamin Piekut, Experimentalism Otherwise: The New York Avant-Garde and its Limits (Berkeley, CA, 2011), 4–7, 14.

29 Cross, Harrison Birtwistle, 201.

30 Michael Nyman, ‘Enter Birtwistle’, Michael Nyman: Collected Writings, ed. ap Siôn, 31–3 (p. 31; originally published in The Spectator, 30 August 1968, 299).

31 Nyman, Experimental Music, 2.

32 Rupprecht, British Musical Modernism, 24–5, 57–8.

33 Andrew Clements, ‘The Io Passion’, The Guardian, 14 June 2004, <http://www.theguardian.com/music/2004/jun/14/classicalmusicandopera1> (accessed 21 February 2016).

34 ‘Punch and Judy (opera)’, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Punch_and_Judy_(opera)&oldid=551044702> (accessed 21 February 2016). David Beard refers to Britten's ‘alleged walkout’ (Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 38); see also Michael Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 1960–1975 (Woodbridge, 2015), 105. On varying versions of this story, see also Letters from a Life: The Selected Letters of Benjamin Britten, 1913–1976, ed. Donald Mitchell, Philip Reed and Mervyn Cooke, 6 vols. (London and Woodbridge, 1998–2012), vi: 1966–1976, 244. Humphrey Carpenter, drawing on interviews, reports that Britten and Pears withdrew to an anteroom behind the directors’ box in which they sat (Benjamin Britten: A Biography (London, 1992), 482–3). John Tooley reports merely that they ‘left hurriedly at the end’ (Tooley, In House: The Story of Covent Garden (London, 1999), 79).

35 Donald Mitchell and Benjamin Britten, ‘Mapreading’, Britten on Music, ed. Paul Kildea (Oxford, 2003), 321–9 (p. 329). On this statement, also see Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 38.

36 Donald Mitchell and Benjamin Britten, ‘Mapreading: Benjamin Britten in Conversation with Donald Mitchell’, The Britten Companion, ed. Christopher Palmer (London, 1984), 87–96 (p. 96). In his introduction to the interview, Mitchell recalled that it took place in February 1969, and was first broadcast on the BBC in 1971 (p. 87).

37 Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 105.

38 Ibid., 102.

39 Harrison Birtwistle and Stephen Pruslin, ‘Notes for Production’, Punch and Judy: A Tragical Comedy or a Comical Tragedy: Opera in One Act (libretto; London, 1968), i–vii (pp. i, iv). Note that some copies of this publication (UE1419aL) do not include this introductory section.

40 Peter Brook, The Empty Space: A Book about the Theatre: Deadly, Holy, Rough, Immediate (London, 1968), 84–5. On Punch and Judy as ‘rough theatre’, see Cross, Harrison Birtwistle, 66, 70.

41 See Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 71–87.

42 Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 18; Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 16–17. See also Michael Hooper, ‘Wardour Castle Summer School’, <https://wardourcastlesummerschool.wordpress.com> (accessed 24 February 2016).

43 Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 16.

44 Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 16–17. Hall appears to be relying mainly on Anthony Gilbert's recollections.

45 Tooley, In House, 79. The published libretto is dated 26 December 1965: Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (libretto), 28. See also my discussion below of the EOG's performance plans and correspondence with Pruslin.

46 Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 96.

47 Davies began working on Taverner, for instance, as a student in 1956. See Peter Maxwell Davies, ‘Taverner: Synopsis and Documentation’, Tempo, 101 (1972), 4–11 (p. 4).

48 Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 50.

49 The Mask of Orpheus originated in a 1968 commission by London Weekend Television and was taken over by Glyndebourne before it eventually premièred at ENO in 1986. See Tooley, In House, 79–80; Jonathan Cross, Harrison Birtwistle: The Mask of Orpheus (Farnham, 2009), 31–8; and Fiona Maddocks and Harrison Birtwistle, Harrison Birtwistle: Wild Tracks – A Conversation Diary with Fiona Maddocks (London, 2014), 80–1. See also Michael Nyman, ‘Mr Birtwistle Is Out’, Michael Nyman: Collected Writings, ed. ap Siôn, 75–6 (p. 76; originally published in Music and Musicians, 18 (September 1969), 27, 78). The alchemists project is mentioned in a letter from Birtwistle to Britten dated 22 November 1965, BPF. See also Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 39.

50 A British Council report from 1965 reads: ‘It is we think only now that foreign audiences are beginning to appreciate the special qualities of British contemporary opera. Much of this is the result of extensive touring in the last four or five years by Sadler's Wells and the English Opera Group.’ R. A. H. Duke to Arts Council, 6 January 1967, ENO Ad 61 box 11, quoted in Susie Gilbert, Opera for Everybody: The Story of English National Opera (London, 2009), 191.

51 Gilbert, Opera for Everybody, 188.

52 Musical Times, 109 (1968), 233; Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 80–2. Hall (p. 169) states that the programme was entitled ‘Three? Avant-Garde? Operas?’, but the question marks do not appear in the Musical Times advertisement. Nonetheless, most critics did not recognize these works as operas (Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 173). Cardew addressed Schooltime Compositions’ relationship to opera in ‘Sitting in the Dark’, Musical Times, 109 (1968), 233–4.

53 Board of Directors Minutes, 23 November 1966, EOG 1/23, BPF. Indeed, there are some indications that Punch and Judy was expected even earlier. When Britten wrote a recommendation for Birtwistle's Harkness Fellowship in 1965 – just as he had for Peter Maxwell Davies and would do again for Jonathan Harvey – Birtwistle assured him that the opera would be produced before he departed to take up the fellowship in the US, where he proposed to work on a new opera. Britten to Birtwistle, 3 November 1965, in Letters from a Life, ed. Mitchell, Reed and Cooke, v: 1958–1965 (2010), 705; Birtwistle to Britten, 22 November 1965, BPF.

54 Keith Grant to John Rhys Evans, 10 January 1966, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF.

55 Programme listings, Radio Times, 10 October 1968, 15. Peter Heyworth bemoaned the lack of a broadcast in ‘Opera of Cruelty’, The Observer, 16 June 1968, 26.

56 The attempts to schedule a Milan performance, at La Piccolo Scala, are detailed in Grant to Anthony Besch, 21 November 1968, 5 December 1968 and 27 January 1969, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF.

57 Birtwistle to Britten, 2 July 1970; Britten to Birtwistle, 15 July 1970, BPF. Punch and Judy was revived at the Aldeburgh Festival in 1991 (Andrew Clements, ‘Punch and Judy’, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, <http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com>, accessed 25 February 2016).

58 On Britten's harsh response in 1965 to Bennett's The Mines of Sulphur, see Anthony Meredith with Paul Harris, Richard Rodney Bennett: The Complete Musician (London, 2010), 152. My thanks to Nicholas Clark for bringing this to my attention.

59 Britten to Anthony Gishford, 23 January 1969, quoted in Letters from a Life, ed. Mitchell, Reed and Cooke, vi, 307.

60 Grant to Besch, 21 August 1969, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF. Besch's note is held in this file.

61 Some reviewers comment on having gone to both concerts; see, for example, Desmond Shawe-Taylor, ‘Guys and Dolls’, Sunday Times, 16 June 1968, 52.

62 Programme Book for the Twenty-First Aldeburgh Festival, 1968, 20. A number of reviews, including Shawe-Taylor, ‘Guys and Dolls’, mention the lack of an interval.

63 Benjamin Britten, ‘On Winning the First Aspen Award’, Britten on Music, ed. Kildea, 255–63.

64 William Mann, ‘Punch and Judy for Adults at Aldeburgh’, The Times, 10 June 1968, 6.

65 ‘Aldeburgh's Noisy Experiment’, Glasgow Herald, 18 June 1968, 12.

66 Leslie Ayre, ‘“Punch” for the Adults, but It's Quite Puzzling’, The Evening News, 10 June 1968, 7.

67 Edward Greenfield, ‘Punch and Judy at Aldeburgh’, The Guardian, 10 June 1968, 6.

68 Shawe-Taylor, ‘Guys and Dolls’.

69 K. W. Dommett, ‘Aldeburgh Festival’, Birmingham Post, 10 June 1968, 3.

70 Conrad Wilson, ‘Food for Thought in “Adult Puppet-Play”’, The Scotsman, 10 June 1968, 5.

71 ‘Punch and Judy Grow Up with a Vengeance’, Daily Express, 10 June 1968, 9.

72 On the new generation of music critics, see also Porter, ‘Some New British Composers’, 16.

73 Andrew Porter, ‘Aldeburgh Festival: Punch and Judy’, Financial Times, 10 June 1968, 36.

74 Heyworth, ‘Opera of Cruelty’.

75 Henry Pleasants, ‘Britten's Third “Parable” Premieres at Aldeburgh’, International Herald Tribune, 12 June 1968, 6.

76 Nyman, ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 39.

77 Andrew Porter, ‘Festivals: Aldeburgh: Punch and Judy’, Musical Times, 109 (1968), 743–4 (p. 743).

78 Noel Goodwin, ‘Punch and Prodigal’, Music and Musicians, 16 (August 1968), 18–19 (p. 18).

79 Heyworth, ‘Opera of Cruelty’.

80 On the related term ‘Literaturoper’, see Geoffrey Chew, ‘“Literaturoper”: A Term Still in Search of a Definition’, Sborník prací Filozofické Fakulty Brněnské Univerzity, řada hudebně vědná (continued as Musicologica Brunensia), 56–7 (2007–8), 5–13.

81 Heyworth, ‘Opera of Cruelty’.

82 Nyman, ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 40; Nyman, ‘Minimal Music’, 43.

83 Porter, ‘Festivals: Aldeburgh: Punch and Judy’, 743.

84 Mann, ‘Punch and Judy for Adults’.

85 Only the Daily Mirror admits the prompt: ‘Producer Anthony Besch likened the work for me to “an operatic theatre of cruelty”’ (David Clemens, ‘Scene’, Daily Mirror, 5 June 1968, 16).

86 Also see Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 122. David Beard discusses Artaud's theatre as an important context for Birtwistle's works; see especially Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 280–6. He highlights Brook's production of Marat/Sade as a possible reference point for Birtwistle's work, in this case Bow Down (ibid., 297).

87 Nyman, ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 41.

88 Programme Book for the Twenty-First Aldeburgh Festival, 21.

89 Ibid.

90 Pruslin, Punch and Judy programme note, first draft.

91 Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 103.

92 Pruslin, Punch and Judy programme note, first draft.

93 Pruslin to Grant, 7 December 1965, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF. The opera was not complete at this point, but Pruslin's letter provides further evidence of plans for a 1966 performance.

94 Stephen Pruslin, Punch and Judy programme note draft, undated, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF.

95 Cross, Harrison Birtwistle, 125 (referring to Pruslin's note in the 54th Annual Cheltenham Festival Programme); Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 104–5.

96 Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 40.

97 Adlington, The Music of Harrison Birtwistle, 11.

98 Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 40, 42, 43.

99 Ibid., 74, quoting Hutcheon, A Theory of Parody, 26.

100 Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 78.

101 Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 57.

102 Ibid., 58, 65–6.

103 Birtwistle, in Michael Hall, ‘Composer and Producer Speak’, in the programme booklet for the ENO première of The Mask of Orpheus, May 1986, quoted in Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 79.

104 See Rupprecht, British Musical Modernism, 57–66.

105 ‘The Puppet Theatre in England: Excerpts from The History of the English Puppet Theatre by George Speaight [London, 1955]’, Programme Book for the Twenty-First Aldeburgh Festival, 10–12.

106 Annotations in copy of Programme Book for the Twenty-First Aldeburgh Festival at BPF, 29.

107 Programme Book for the Twenty-First Aldeburgh Festival, 21.

108 Rosalind Crone, ‘Mr and Mrs Punch in Nineteenth-Century England’, Historical Journal, 49 (2006), 1055–82. See also Scott Cutler Shershow, ‘Punch and Judy and Cultural Appropriation’, Popular Culture, ed. Michael J. Pickering, 4 vols. (London, 2010), i: Historical Perspectives on Popular Culture, 3–32 (p. 24).

109 Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (libretto), v.

110 Ibid., ii.

111 Ibid., v.

112 Clemens, ‘Scene’.

113 Maddocks and Birtwistle, Harrison Birtwistle, 69.

114 Mann, ‘Punch and Judy for Adults at Aldeburgh’; Maddocks and Birtwistle, Harrison Birtwistle, illustration 2.

115 See Cross, Harrison Birtwistle, 69–73; Adlington, The Music of Harrison Birtwistle, 8. Both refer to Gabriel Josipovici, The Lessons of Modernism and Other Essays (London, 1977), 176.

116 Harrison Birtwistle and Stephen Pruslin, Punch and Judy: A Tragical Comedy or a Comical Tragedy: Opera in One Act (score; London, 1968), 233.

117 Hall observes in Harrison Birtwistle, 63, that one of the dancers is a ‘green man’, and this can also clearly be seen in the production photographs. The published production notes call for ‘the traditional Green Man, with foliage stemming from his mouth; another male should have a hobby horse's head, as if to indicate that even Punch's hobby horse is involved in the final revelry; the remaining three dancers should also be attired with reference to a traditional mummer's [sic] play’. Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (libretto), v.

118 Shershow, ‘Punch and Judy and Cultural Appropriation’, 20–1. Shershow points out that this association might also be seen in a less celebratory sense as a patronizing displacement of violence onto marginalized segments of society.

119 Goehr, the librettist Erich Fried and performers in the première discuss this theme in a BBC documentary from 1967 (<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnHtvz-moD0>, accessed 11 August 2015).

120 Peter Maxwell Davies and Stephen Walsh, ‘Taverner’, Musical Times, 113 (1972), 653–5 (p. 654).

121 Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (score), 26–7.

122 Ibid., 43–4; Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 66.

123 Gordon Crosse, ‘Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, Tempo, 85 (June 1968), 24–6 (p. 25).

124 Nyman, ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 39.

125 Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 59.

126 Ibid., 61.

127 Ibid., 16.

128 The score calls for Punch to pretend to play a ‘bass-viol’ (p. 123).

129 David Beard reads this moment as somewhat more ambiguous in its expression of regret. Beard, Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 74–5.

130 On Choregos's murder as ‘turning point’, see also Hall, Music Theatre in Britain, 103.

131 Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 61.

132 Anthony Besch, Punch and Judy programme note, enclosed in Besch to Grant, 18 August 1969, EOG Admin File: Punch and Judy, BPF.

133 Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 16.

134 Bourdieu, ‘Intellectual Field and Creative Project’, 110.

135 Beard discusses this association but connects Choregos more specifically to opera (Harrison Birtwistle's Operas and Music Theatre, 68, 73). On Choregos as a figure of music, see also Adlington, The Music of Harrison Birtwistle, 10. As Beard points out (p. 68), the connection was first highlighted by Michael Nyman, in ‘Harrison Birtwistle's Punch and Judy’, 40.

136 Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (score), 91–2.

137 Birtwistle and Pruslin, Punch and Judy (score), 91, 15.

138 Ibid., 12.

139 Ibid., 64.

140 Ibid., 100, 106, 113.

141 See also Hall, Harrison Birtwistle, 59.

142 Born, Rationalizing Culture, 27.

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