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Saints of the Indus: The Rise of Islam in South Asia's Borderlands

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 May 2016

ANDRÉ WINK*
Affiliation:
University of Wisconsin awink@wisc.edu

Abstract

This paper summarises an argument I make at much greater length in the forthcoming fourth volume of my book Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. For more detail and extensive footnotes and references I refer to the longer version.

The aim of this summary is to provide an outline of a new account of the rise of Islam in Sindh and more broadly the Indus borderlands — the latter comprise Sindh, Baluchistan, the Afghan tribal areas and the Kabul wilayat, Kafiristan (the later Nuristan), the western Panjab, and, to the east and south of the northernmost curve of the Indus river, the Kashmir valley and its surrounding mountain zone. With the exception of about half of the Afghan tribal lands which are part of Afghanistan and the valley of Kashmir which is part of India today, this area is broadly coterminous with Pakistan minus Lahore.

Type
Part IV: Beyond the Empire
Copyright
Copyright © The Royal Asiatic Society 2016 

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References

1 Lieven, A., Pakistan: A Hard Country (New York, 2011), p. 30 Google Scholar.

2 Charles Masson, Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, 1826 to 1838, 4 vols (reprinted New Delhi, 1997), IV, p. 335; Lieven, Pakistan, p. 342.

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5 Encyclopaedia Iranica (New York, 2005), s.v.

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9 Cf. Burton, R. F., Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus (1851 reprint New Delhi, 1997), p. 304 Google Scholar; Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 3 vols (Leiden and Boston, 1990–2004), III, p. 15Google Scholar and passim.

10 Wink, Al-Hind, I, p. 175; III, pp. 64–78.

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18 Wink, Al-Hind, I, pp. 147–166.

19 Beal, Si-Yu-Ki, p. 463.

20 Ibid ., pp. 462 ff.

Ibid

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Ibid

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26 See especially Eaton, R. M., “The political and religious authority of the shrine of Baba Farid”, in Metcalf, B. D. (ed.), Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1984), pp. 333356 Google Scholar; idem, “Approaches to the study of Islam in India”, in R. C. Martin (ed.), Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies (Tucson, 1985), pp. 106–126; idem, Islamic History as Global History (Washington, DC, 1990); idem, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760 (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1993).

27 Eaton, “Approaches to the study of Islam”, p. 111.

28 Eaton, Islamic History as Global History, p. 35.

29 Karin de Vries, Islamitische heiligen en heiligentomben in Multan: de rol van heiligen in ontginning, sedentarisatie en Islamisering (1320–1901) (MA Dissertation, Department of Indian Studies (Instituut Kern), University of Leiden, 1997), pp. 9–23, 77–84; Gazetteer of the Jhang District 1883–4 (Lahore, 1884), p. 69; Ibbetson, D., Panjab Castes: being a reprint of the Chapter on “the Races, Castes and Tribes of the People” in the Report on the Census of the Panjab Published in 1883 (Lahore, 1916), p. 148 Google Scholar; Gazetteer of the Mooltan District 1883–4 (Lahore, 1884), pp. 60–61, 67; S. Hellbusch, Westphal and Westphal, H., Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Jat (Berlin, 1968), p. 72 Google Scholar; Masson, Narrative of Various Journeys, I, pp. 456–457; Morris, J. B., Report on the Revised Settlement of the Mooltan District in the Mooltan Division (Lahore, 1860), pp. 5, 14–15Google Scholar.

30 Tapper, “Holier than Thou”.

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34 Wink, Al-Hind, II, pp. 112–135, 138–139.

35 Ibid ., II, pp. 135–149.

Ibid

36 Ibid ., II, pp. 202–211, 239–244, and III, pp. 118, 120–122; Masson, Narrative of Various Journeys, IV, p. 388; Rashid (ed.), Inshā’-i-Māhrū, pp. 9, 19–22, 100–103, 186–188, 229–235.

Ibid

37 Wink, Al-Hind, II, pp. 207–8, and III, p. 122; Pandit, K. R. (translation), A Chronicle of Medieval Kashmir (Calcutta, 1991), pp. 17, 27–29Google Scholar.

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39 Irving, Miles, “The shrine of Baba Farid Shakarganj at Pakpattan”, Journal of the Panjab Historical Society 1 (1919–1920), pp. 70–76Google Scholar; O'Brien, Audrey, “The Mohammedan saints of the Western Panjab”, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 41 (1911), pp. 509520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Vries, De, Islamitische heiligen en heiligentomben in Multan; Sarah F. D. Ansari, Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843–1947 (Cambridge, 2003)Google Scholar; Green, Nile, “Blessed Men and tribal politics: Notes on political culture in the Indo-Afghan world”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 49:3 (2006), pp. 344360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

40 Ernest Gellner applies this terminology to Muslim saints in Morocco: cf. Saints of the Atlas (London, 1969).

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