Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-phmbd Total loading time: 0.311 Render date: 2022-07-03T22:23:25.012Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of devon and cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2009

A. J. Southward
Affiliation:
The Laboratory, Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB
G. T. Boalch
Affiliation:
The Laboratory, Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB
Linda Maddock
Affiliation:
The Laboratory, Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB

Extract

Scientific data from the last 100 years are combined with primary and secondary historical information on the fisheries to summarize changes in the relative abundance of pilchards and herrings in the south-west in the last 400 years. The fluctuations in the two species are compared with recorded and inferred annual mean temperatures over the period. Pilchards are more abundant and extend farther to the east when the climate is warmer, as from 1590 to 1640 and from 1930 to 1960. In cooler times, as in the second half of the seventeenth century, herrings are more abundant while the pilchard fishery occurs later in the year and is restricted to west Cornwall. Lesser changes in the relative abundance of the two species and the timing of the fishery along the south coast of Devon and Cornwall in the intervening periods between these extremes accord fairly well with smaller fluctuations in climate. It is presumed that in addition to direct effects on reproduction and behaviour, changes in climate can indirectly influence the relative competitive advantage of the species through alterations in the associated ecosystem.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 1988

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, E. J., 1910. Mackerel and sunshine. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 8, 394406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ancellin, J., 1953. Étude comparative des harengs immatures de la baie du Mont St. Michel, de la baie de Seine et du Sud de la Mer du Nord (Banes des Flandres). Revue des travaux. Institut scientifique et technique des pêches maritimes, 18, 917.Google Scholar
Bellamy, J. C., 1839. The Natural History of South Devon. Plymouth: Jenkin Thomas.Google Scholar
Bellamy, J. C., 1843. The Housekeeper's Guide to the Fishmarket for Each Month of the Year: and an Account of the Fisheries of Devon and Cornwall. Plymouth: E. Nettleton. London: Brown, Green & Longmans.Google Scholar
Birman, I. B., 1973. Heliohydrobiological relations as a basis for the long-term forecasting of food fish stocks (with special reference to salmon and herring). Journal of Ichthyology, 13, 2032 (translation of:Voprosy ikhtiologii), 13(1), 23–37).Google Scholar
Blaxter, J. H. S., 1969. Experimental rearing of pilchard larvae, Sardina pilchardus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 557575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaxter, J. H. S. & Holliday, F. G. T., 1958. Factors influencing the feeding behaviour of herring. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 27, 1528.Google Scholar
Boalch, G. T., 1987. Changes in the phytoplankton of the Western English Channel in recent years. British Phycological Journal, 22, 225235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowen, E., 1755. An Accurate Map of Devonshire, Divided into its Hundreds… London: Tinney.Google Scholar
Bracewell, R. N., 1986. Simulating the sunspot cycle. Nature, London, 323, 516519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chope, R. P., 1918. Early Tours in Devon and Cornwall. Exeter: J. G. Commin.Google Scholar
Colebrook, J. M., 1976. Trends in the climate of the North Atlantic Ocean over the past century. Nature, London, 263, 576577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, L. H. N., 1955. Deep water movements in the North Atlantic as a link between climatic changes around Iceland and biological productivity of the English Channel and Celtic Sea. Journal of Marine Research, 14, 347–62.Google Scholar
Couch, J., 1822. Some particulars of the natural history of fishes found in Cornwall. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 14, 6992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Couch, J., 1835. A treatise on the natural history of the pilchard, with particular reference to the fisheries of Cornwall. Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 3, 65101.Google Scholar
Couch, J., 1840. Observations in further illustration of the history and statistics of the pilchard fishery. Transactions of the Polytechnic Society of Cornwall, 1840, 1126.Google Scholar
Couch, J., 1865. A History of the Fishes of the British Islands, vol. 4. London: Groombridge & Sons.Google Scholar
Crane, A. & Liss, P., 1985. Carbon dioxide, climate and the sea. New Scientist, 108 (1483), 5053.Google Scholar
Culley, M., 1971. The Pilchard: Biology and Exploitation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
Cunningham, J. T., 1889. Studies on the reproduction and development of teleostean fishes occurring in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, J. T., 1891. The reproduction and growth of the pilchard. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2, 151157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, J. T., 1894. The life-history of the pilchard. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 3, 148153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, J. T., 1906. Fishes. In The Victoria History of the County of Cornwall, vol 1 (ed. Page, W.), pp. 291306. London: Archibald Constable.Google Scholar
Cushing, D. H., 1957. The number of pilchards in the Channel. Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ser. 2), 21 (5), 27 pp.Google Scholar
Cushing, D. H., 1961. On the failure of the Plymouth herring fishery. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41, 799816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cushing, D. H. & Dickson, R. R., 1976. The biological response in the sea to climatic change. Advances in Marine Biology, 14, 1122.Google Scholar
Darwin, C., 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Dicke, R. H., 1979. Solar luminosity and the sunspot cycle. Nature, London, 208, 2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dickinson, R. E. & Cicerone, R. J., 1986. Future global warming from atmospheric trace gases. Nature, London, 319, 109115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodd, J. S., 1752. An Essay Towards the Natural History of the Herring. London: T. Vincent.Google Scholar
Dunn, M., 1886. Some habits of the picked dogs, herrings and pilchards on the coasts of Devon and Cornwall. Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 54, 116.Google Scholar
Dunn, M., 1894. The migrations and other habits of the herring on the coast of Devon and Cornwall. Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 62, 5872.Google Scholar
Dunn, M., 1895. The migrations and habits of the pilchard. In Lectures on Fishes, Fishing etc., delivered at the Fisheries Exhibition, held at Truro, Cornwall, 1893, pp. 155–75. Truro: Lake & Lake.Google Scholar
Dunn, M., 1898. On the occurrence of large numbers of larval herrings at the surface. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 5, 184185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eddy, J. A., 1976. The Maunder minimum. Science, New York, 192, 11891202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elliot, E. A. S., 1903. An original article on the pilchard fishery at Borrough Island by Colonel Montagu a hundred years ago: with supplementary notes to the present time. Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 35, 430433.Google Scholar
Ford, E., 1928. The herring fishery. Investigations at Plymouth. Western Morning News, 7 March 1928, p. 4.Google Scholar
Ford, E., 1933. An account of the herring investigations conducted at Plymouth during the years from 1924 to 1933. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 19, 305384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gough, D., 1986. What causes the solar cycle? Nature, London, 319, 263264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gribbin, J., 1981 a. Geomagnetism and climate. New Scientist, 89, 350353.Google Scholar
Gribbin, J., 1981 b. Sun and weather: the stratospheric link. New Scientist, 91, 669671.Google Scholar
Gribbin, J., 1986. Temperatures rise in the global greenhouse. New Scientist, 110 (1508), 3233.Google Scholar
Hansen, J., Johnson, D., Lacis, A., Lebedeff, S., Lee, P., Rind, D. & Russell, G., 1981. Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science, New York, 213, 957966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardy, A. C., 1924. The herring in relation to its animate environment. Part 1. The food and feeding habits of the herring with reference to the east coast of England. Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ser. 2), 7 (3), 53, pp.Google Scholar
Heape, W., 1887. Notes on the fishing industry of Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 4595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson-Sellers, A., 1987. Climate is a cloudy issue. New Scientist, 115, 3739.Google Scholar
Hodgson, W. C., 1957. The Herring and its Fishery. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Ingram, M. J., Underhill, D. J. & Wigley, T. M. L., 1978, Historical climatology. Nature, London, 276, 329334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenkins, J. T., 1927. The Herring and the Herring Fisheries. London: King & Son.Google Scholar
Kemp, S., 1938. Oceanography and the fluctuations in abundance of marine animals. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1938, 85101.Google Scholar
Kerr, R. A., 1987. Sunspot-weather correlation found. Science, New York, 238, 479480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamb, H. H., 1977. Climate. Present, Past and Future. 2. Climatic History and the Future. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
Last, J. M., 1987, The food of immature sprat (Sprattus sprattus (L.)) and herring (Clupea harengus L.) in coastal waters of the North Sea. Journal du Conseil, 44, 7379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Danois, E. (ed.), 1935. Manual des pêches maritimes françaises. Memoires. Office des scientifique et technique pêches maritimes (sér. speciale), no. 10, fasc. 2, 199 pp.Google Scholar
Long, A., 1982. 100 to 200 years solar periodicities. Nature, London, 298, 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lysons, D. & Lysons, S., 1822. Devonshire. Magna Brittannia, vol. 6. London: Thomas Cadell.Google Scholar
Maddock, L., Boalch, G. T. & Harbour, D. S., 1981. Populations of phytoplankton in the western English Channel between 1964 and 1974. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 565583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manley, G., 1974. Central England temperatures: monthly means from 1659 to 1973. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 100, 389405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moura, O. & Afonso, Dos Santos G., 1984. Relating pilchard abundance to solar activity. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (C.M. Paper and Reports), H:48, 9 pp. [Mimeo.]Google Scholar
Norden, J., 1728. Speculi Britanniae Pars. A Topographical and Historical Description of Cornwall. London: Pearson.Google Scholar
Orton, J. H., 1916. An account of the researches on races of herrings carried out at the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth, 1914–15. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 11, 71121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polwhele, R., 1797. Devonshire, vol. 1. Exeter: Trewman for Cadell, Johnson & Dilly, London.Google Scholar
Radovich, J., 1981. The collapse of the California sardine fishery. What have we learned? In Resource Management and Environmental Uncertainty (ed. Glantz, M. H. and Thompson, J. D.), pp. 107136. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Roach, W., 1890. Notes on the herring, long-line and pilchard fisheries of Plymouth during the winter 1889–90. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 382390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roach, W., 1891. Notes on the herring, long-line, and pilchard fisheries of Plymouth (continued). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2, 180188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowse, A. L., 1932. The dispute concerning the Plymouth pilchard fishery. Economic History Review (ser. 1), 2, 461465.Google Scholar
Russell, E. S., 1915. Report on log-book records relating to mackerel, pilchards and herring, kept by fishermen during the years 1895–1911, under the auspices of the Cornwall County Council. Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ser. 2), 3(1), 46 pp.Google Scholar
Russell, F. S., 1973. A summary of the observations on the occurrence of the planktonic stages of fish off Plymouth 1924–1972. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53, 347355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, F. S., Southward, A. J., Boalch, G. T. & Butler, E. I., 1971. Changes in biological conditions in the English Channel off Plymouth during the last half-century. Nature, London, 234, 468470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage, R. E., 1937. The food of the North Sea herring, 1930–34. Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ser. 2), 10(5), 60 pp.Google Scholar
Sear, C., 1987. Wetter weather linked to greenhouse effect. New Scientist, 114 (1568), 27.Google Scholar
Shutts, G. J. & Green, J. S. A., 1978. Mechanisms and models of climatic change. Nature, London, 276, 339342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Siscoe, G. L., 1978. Solar-terrestrial influences on weather and climate. Nature, London, 276, 348352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1962. The distribution of some plankton animals in the English Channel and approaches. II. Surveys with the Gulf III high-speed sampler, 1958–60. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 42, 275375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1963. The distribution of some plankton animals in the English Channel and approaches. III. Theories about long-term biological changes, including fish. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 43, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1970. Improved methods of sampling post-larval young fish and macro-plankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 689712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1974 a. Changes in the plankton community of the Western English Channel. Nature, London, 249, 180181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Southward, A. J., 1974 b. Long-term changes in abundance of eggs of the Cornish pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum) off Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 641649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1980. The western English Channel - an inconstant ecosystem? Nature, London, 285, 361366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J., 1984. Fluctuations in the ‘indicator’ chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Sagitta setosa in the western Channel. Oceanologica acta, 7, 229239.Google Scholar
Southward, A. J. & Boalch, G. T., 1988. Aspects of long-term changes in the ecosystem of the Western English Channel in relation to fish populations. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Long Term Changes in Marine Fish Populations, Vigo, Spain, November 1986, in press.Google Scholar
Southward, A. J., Boalch, G. T. & Maddock, L., 1988. Climatic change and fluctuation in the herring and pilchard fisheries of Devon and Cornwall. Exeter Papers in Economic History, in press.Google Scholar
Southward, A. J., Butler, E. I. & Pennycuick, L., 1975. Recent cyclic changes in climate and in abundance of marine life. Nature, London, 253, 714—717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southward, A. J. & Demir, N., 1974. The abundance and distribution of eggs and larvae of teleost fishes off Plymouth in 1969 and 1970. Part 3. Eggs of pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus (L.)). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 333353.Google Scholar
Stuiver, M. & Quay, P. D., 1980. Changes in atmospheric carbon-14 attributed to a variable sun. Science, New York, 207, 1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swithinbank, H. & Bullen, G. E., 1913. The scientific and economic aspects of the Cornish Pilchard fishery. 1. The food and feeding habits of the pilchard in coastal waters. Mera Publications, no. 1, 332.Google Scholar
Tate, Regan C., 1916. The British fishes of the sub-family Clupeinae and related species in other seas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 18, 119.Google Scholar
Tawney, R. H. & Power, E., 1924. Tudor Economic Documents, 3 vols. London: Longmans, Green & Co.Google Scholar
Waldmeier, M., 1961. The Sunspot-Activity in the Years 1610–1960. Zürich: Schulthess.Google Scholar
Waldmeier, M., 1976. The sunspot-activity in the years 1961–1975. Astronomische Mitteilungen, no. 346, 13 pp.Google Scholar
Wallace, P. D. & Pleasants, C. A., 1972. The distribution of eggs and larvae of some pelagic fish species in the English Channel and adjacent waters in 1967 and 1968. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (C.M. Papers and Reports), J:8, 4 pp. [Mimeo.]Google Scholar
Webb, B. W., 1987. The relationship between air and water temperatures for a Devon River. Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art, 119, 197222.Google Scholar
Whetter, J. C. A., 1965. The Economic History of Cornwall in the 17th Century. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
Williams, G., 1987. Cosmic signals laid down in stone. New Scientist, 114 (1566), 6366.Google Scholar
Wilson, R. M., 1987. On the distribution of sunspot cycle periods. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 1010110104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Worth, R. N., 1890. A History of Plymouth. Plymouth: Brendon & Sons.Google Scholar
Worth, R. N., 1893. Calendar of the Plymouth Municipal Records. Plymouth: Brendon & Sons.Google Scholar
93
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of devon and cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of devon and cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of devon and cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *