Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-mqrwx Total loading time: 0.286 Render date: 2022-12-02T13:26:28.628Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Psychological Resilience as a Predictor of Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms in Children With Single and Multiple Concussion

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 September 2018

Christianne Laliberté Durish*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Keith Owen Yeates
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Brian L. Brooks
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Christianne Laliberté Durish, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4. E-mail: christianne.lalibert@ucalgary.ca

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of psychological resilience to persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) in children with a history of single or multiple concussions, as well as orthopedic injury (OI). Methods: Participants (N=75) were children, ages 8–18 years, who sustained a single concussion (n=24), multiple concussions (n=25), or an OI (n=26), recruited from a tertiary care children’s hospital. All participants sustained injuries at least 6 months before recruitment, with an average time since injury of 32.9 months. Self-reported psychological resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and both self- and parent-reported PCS were measured using the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory. Hierarchical regression analyses examined psychological resilience as a predictor of PCS, both as a main effect and as a moderator of group differences. Results: Multiple concussions and low psychological resilience were both significant predictors of persistent PCS. Resilience was not a significant moderator of group differences in PCS. Conclusions: Sustaining multiple concussions may increase a child’s risk of persistent PCS; however, high psychological resilience may serve as a protective factor, regardless of the number or type of injuries sustained. These findings provide support for developing and testing interventions aimed at increasing psychological resilience as a potential means of improving outcomes for children suffering from persistent PCS after concussion. (JINS, 2018, 24, 759–768)

Type
Regular Research
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Anthony, E.J. (1974). The syndrome of the psychologically invulnerable child. In E.J. Anthony & C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child in his family: Children at psychiatric risk (pp. 529545). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). (2008). Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. Barrington, IL: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.Google Scholar
Babcock, L., Byczkowski, T., Wade, S.L., Ho, M., Mookerjee, S., & Bazarian, J.J. (2013). Predicting postconcussion syndrome after mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents who present to the emergency department. JAMA Pediatrics, 156(2), 161167.Google Scholar
Barker, T., Russo, S.A., Barker, G., Rice, M.A., Jeffrey, M.G., Broderick, G., &Craddock, T.J.A. (2017). A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions. BMC Psychology, 5(1), 14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barlow, K.M., Crawford, S., Stevenson, A., Sandhu, S.S., Belanger, F., & Dewey, D. (2010). Epidemiology of postconcussion syndrome in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics, 126, e374e381.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B (Methodological), 57, 289300.Google Scholar
Bijur, P.E., Haslum, M., & Golding, J. (1996). Cognitive outcomes of multiple mild head injuries in children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 17(3), 143148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooks, B.L., Mannix, R., Maxwell, B., Zafonte, R., Berkner, P.D., & Iverson, G.L. (2016). Multiple past concussions in high school football players: Are there differences in cognitive functioning and symptom reporting? Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(12), 32433251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooks, B.L., McKay, C.D., Mrazik, M., Barlow, K.M., Meeuwisse, W.H., & Emery, C.A. (2013). Subjective, but not objective, lingering effects of multiple past concussions in adolescents. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 14691475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassidy, J.D., Carroll, L.J., Peloso, P.M., Borg, J., von Holst, H., Coronado, V.G. (2004). Incidence, risk factors and prevention of mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl), 2860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connor, K.M., & Davidson, J.R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 7682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fay, T.B., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Bangert, C., Dietrich, A., Nuss, K.E., &Wright, J.M. (2010). Cognitive reserve as a moderator of postconcussive symptoms in children with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(1), 94105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grool, A.M., Aglipay, M., Momoli, F., Meehan, W.P., Freedman, S.B., Yeates, K.O., . . . Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) Concussion Team. (2016). Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents. JAMA, 316(23), 25042514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
IBM Corp. (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
Iverson, G.L., Brooks, B.L., Lovell, M.R., & Collins, M.W. (2006). No cumulative effects for one or two previous concussions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(1), 7275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, G.L., Gaetz, M., Lovell, M.R., & Collins, M.W. (2004). Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes. Brain Injury, 18(5), 433443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iverson, G.L., Gardner, A.J., Terry, D.P., Ponsford, J.L., Sills, A.K., Broshek, D.K., &Solomon, G.S. (2017). Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51, 941948.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, M.C., Porteous, T., Crilly, M.A., Burton, C.D., Elliot, A., Iversen, L., &Black, C. (2015). Physical disease and resilient outcomes: A systematic review of resilience definitions and study methods. Psychosomatics, 56(2), 168180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laliberté Durish, C., Brooks, B.L., & Yeates, K.O. (2017). Convergent and divergent validity for a measure of psychological resilience in children with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 23(Suppl. 1), 294.Google Scholar
Langlois, J.A., Rutland-Brown, W., & Thomas, K.E. (2006). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
Losoi, H., Silverberg, N.D., Waljas, M., Turunen, S., Rosti-Otajarvi, E., Helminen, M., &Iverson, G.L. (2016). Recovery from mild traumatic brain injury in previously healthy adults. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33(8), 766776.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losoi, H., Silverberg, N.D., Waljas, M., Turunen, S., Rosti-Otajarvi, E., Helminen, M., &Iverson, G.L. (2015). Resilience is associated with outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32, 942949.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mannix, R., Iverson, G.L., Maxwell, B., Atkins, J.E., Zafonte, R., & Berkner, P.D. (2014). Multiple prior concussions are associated with symptoms in high school athletes. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 1(6), 433438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNally, K.A., Bangert, B., Dietrich, A., Nuss, K., Rusin, J., Wright, M., &Yeates, K.O. (2014). Injury versus non-injury factors as predictors of post-concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 27(1), 1227.Google Scholar
Merritt, V.C., Lange, R.T., & French, L.M. (2015). Resilience and symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury in military service members. Brain Injury, 29(11), 13251336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2003). Report to Congress on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Steps to Prevent a Serious Public Health Problem. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N.P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioural research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879903.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ponsford, J., Willmott, C., Rothwell, A., Cameron, P., Ayton, G., Nelmus, R., &Ng, K.T. (1999). Cognitive and behavioural outcome following mild traumatic head injury in children. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14(4), 360372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rieger, B.P., Lewandowski, L.J., Callahan, J.M., Spenceley, L., Truckenmiller, A., Gathke, R., &Miller, L.A. (2013). A prospective study of symptoms and neurocognitive outcomes in youth with concussion vs orthopaedic injuries. Brain Injury, 27(2), 169178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sady, M.D., Vaughan, C.G., & Gioia, G.A. (2014). Psychometric characteristics of the postconcussion symptom inventory in children and adolescents. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29, 348363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, E.M.S., & Brooks, B.L., (2015a). Child and Adolescent Memory ProfileTM (ChAMP). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Sherman, E.M.S., & Brooks, B.L., (2015b). Memory Validity ProfileTM (MVP). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Sherman, E.M.S., & Brooks, B.L., (2017). Multidimensional Everyday Memory Ratings for YouthTM (MEMRY). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
Steinhardt, M.A., & Dolbier, C. (2008). Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and protective factors and decrease symptomatology. Journal of American College Health, 445, 453456.Google Scholar
Sullivan, K.A., Edmed, S.L., Allan, A.C., Smith, S.S., & Karlsson, L.J.E. (2015). The role of psychological resilience and mTBI as predictors of postconcussional syndrome symptomatology. Rehabilitation Psychology, 60(2), 147154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, H.G., Dietrich, A., Nuss, K., Wright, M., Rusin, J., Bangert, B., &Yeates, K.O. (2010). Post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 24(2), 148159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomsen, D.K., Mehlsen, M.Y., Christensen, S., & Zachariae, R. (2003). Rumination – relationship with negative mood and sleep quality. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(7), 12931301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Dyk, T.R., Thompson, R.W., & Nelson, T.D. (2016). Daily bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth with emotional and behavioral problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 41(9), 983992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Werner, E. (1997). Vulnerable but invincible: High-risk children from birth to adulthood. Acta Paediatrica, 86, 103105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werner, E.E., & Smith, R.S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Woodrome, S.E., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Rusin, J., Bangert, B., Dietrich, A., &Wright, M. (2011). Coping strategies as a predictor of post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury versus mild orthopedic injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(2), 317326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zemek, R., Barrowman, N., Freedman, S.B., Gravel, J., Gagnon, I., McGahem, C., . . . Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) Concussion Team. (2016). Clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children with acute concussion in the ED. JAMA, 315(10), 10141025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zemek, R.L., Farion, K.J., Sampson, M., & McGahern, C. (2013). Prognostic indicators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: A systematic review. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(3), 259265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Psychological Resilience as a Predictor of Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms in Children With Single and Multiple Concussion
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Psychological Resilience as a Predictor of Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms in Children With Single and Multiple Concussion
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Psychological Resilience as a Predictor of Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms in Children With Single and Multiple Concussion
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *